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Andrius Kulikauskas

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Darbai

  • parengti turinį (klausimus susieti su reikalavimais)
  • metmenis kaip susikurti savo dorovę
  • skaitinių rinkinį.

Peržvelgti ir sudėlioti etikos kurso turinį ir pritaikyti savo kurso uždaviniui. Išmąstyti etikos uždavinį studentams: išmąstyti savo visapusišką dorovės sistemą (mąstymas bendrais dėsniais) ir susikurti ir išnagrinėti sau sudėtingiausią, gyvenimišką dorovinį uždavinį (mąstymas pavyzdžiais). Išmokti aptarti savo ir kitų sistemas ir uždavinius. Tam tikslui susipažinti su įvairių mąstytojų sistemomis ir uždaviniais. turinį (klausimus susieti su reikalavimais), metmenis kaip susikurti savo dorovę, ir skaitinių rinkinį. Peržvelgti ir sudėlioti etikos kurso turinį ir pritaikyti savo kurso uždaviniui. Išmąstyti etikos uždavinį studentams: išmąstyti savo visapusišką dorovės sistemą (mąstymas bendrais dėsniais) ir susikurti ir išnagrinėti sau sudėtingiausią, gyvenimišką dorovinį uždavinį (mąstymas pavyzdžiais). Išmokti aptarti savo ir kitų sistemas ir uždavinius. Tam tikslui susipažinti su įvairių mąstytojų sistemomis ir uždaviniais.

Ethics

Ethics Course as Taught by Andrius

Given human behavior - how people do behave, ethics is taught as the issue of how people should behave. Students are required to clarify their own values and deepest value, to collect examples of ethical challenges, and to create their own ethical theory which addresses them, and to express that with a selection of readings and their personal commentary.

The theory should answer:

  • What should we do: How should we behave? (How do we and could we?)
  • Why should we do it: Why does it matter how we behave? (What are and could be the consequences of our behavior?)
  • How should we do it: How can we behave as we desire? (What motivates or could motivate our behavior?)
  • They will write a short book where they answer these three questions with their own thoughts, and also comment on related texts they agree with and disagree with.
  • They will present and discuss their thoughts on texts they agree with and disagree with regarding one or more of these three questions.
  • They will take a final exam where they will answer these three questions.

Course description and requirements

Students learn about basic ethical schools and systems, fundamental issues of deontological and teleological ethic. Historical developement of ethical thought, periods such as Early Asian, Greece and Romain, medievvial, Reneissance, New Age and modernism. The main ethical issues are discussed: good and evil, principle of morality and free will, person as a goal in itself, notion of dignity, conscience, norm and morality, grounding morals in athority and discourse, notion of virtue, happiness and meaning of life and etc. Analyzed texts and philosophic al arguments os themost significant scholars of the field (Plato, Aristotle, Kant).

15 hours of lecture, 15 hours of discussion, 2 hours of consultation, and 48 hours of independent work.

Acquaint with philosophical ethics and fundamental ethical problems and concepts. Transmit a knowledge of ethical foundations, principles and systems. Foster critical judgement and the capacity for logical, reasoned discussion. Encourage a sense of values.

Accumulative evaluation - up to 3 points. It will be outputet from: attendane, written works and active participation in discussions; analysis and discussion of academic texts. Individual work and its presentation; analysis and interpretation of a film. Final exam - up to 7 points.

Galutinio ávertinimo paþymio G formulë:

  G = R × 0,5 + SE × 0,5

Primary readings

  • Pruskus, V., Briedis, M., 2010, Etika, Vilnius: Technika
  • Baranova J. Etika: filosofija kaip praktika, Vilnius: Alma Littera
  • Nagel Thomas, 2001. Kà visa tai reiðkia? Labai trumpas ávadas á filosofijà, Vilnius: Baltos lankos

Secondary readings

  • Filosofija. Mokomoji knyga. K., Technologija, 2000
  • MacIntyre, A. Trumpa etikos istorija. Vilnius, 2000
  • Nagel Th., Labai trumpas ávadas á filosofijà. Kà visa tai reiðkia. Vilnius: ALK. Baltos lankos, 2001
  • Nekraðas E. Filosofijos ávadas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijø leidykla, 2004 (1993)
  • Platonas, Valstybë, Vilnius: Pradai, 2000
  • Tatarkiewicz W., Filosofijos istorija (T. I, II, III), Vilnius: Alma litera, 2003
  • Williams, B. Etika ir filosofijos ribos. V.: ALK, Dialogo institutas, 2004
  • Mackinman, R. Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. London: London university press. 2011.

Assignments

  • 1. Aristotelio "Nikomacho etika" analizë.
  • Analyzis of Aristotle text "Nicomachean ethics"
  • 2. Filmo analizë: studentai perþiûri vienà ið dviejø nurodytø filmø: 1) A. Amenabaro filmas "Agora". Aptariamos jame áþvelgtos etinës problemos: meilë, draugystë, iðtikimybë, tolerancija ir nepakantumas, religijø) dialogas ir kovos dël ásitvirtinimo, lygios teisës ir moters padëtis visuomenëje. 2) Fernando Meiralles'o ir K?tia Lund filmas "Dievo miestas". Aptariamos jame áþvelgtos etinës problemos: socialinë atskirties problema, akistata mirties akivaizdoje, moralinio nuosmukio kriminalinëje erdvëje prieþastys, iðeities ið sunkios padëties ieðkojimo galimybës, segregaciniø zonø integravimo á civilizuotà pasaulá galimybës. NL(S) NL(Sav.) I(S)
  • 3. Immanuelio Kanto veikalo "Dorovës metafizikos pagrindai" analizë. Kategoriniø imperatyvø pliusai ir minusai: pavyzdþiø bei atvejø analizë. Analyzis of Immanuel Kant text "Metaphysics of moral". Advantages and disadvantages of Cathegorical imperatives: analyzis of examples and situations.
  • 4. Studentø pristatymai ir diskusijos. Pristatymø temos: Nauda; Teisingumas; Tolerancija; Egoizmas; Asmuo ir visuomenë; Mirties bausmë; Prievarta vardan gërio; Profesinë etika; Pareiga; Saviþudybë; Atsakomybë; Laisvë; Laimë; Pavydas; Feministinë etika; Meilë; Draugystë; Vienatvë; Atsakomybë; Medicinos etika; Þurnalistinë etika; Politika ir moralë; Etika ir psichologija; Budistinë etika; Konfucianistinë etika; Krikðèioniðkoji etika.
  • Student presentations and discussions. Presentation topics: Utility; Justice; Tolerance; Egoism; Individual and society; Death sentence; The use of force in the name of good; Professional ethics; Duty; Suicide; Responsibility; Freedom; Happiness; Jealousy; Feminist ethics; Love; Friendship; Solitude; Responsibility; Medical ethics; Journalistic ethics; Politics and morality; Ethics and psychology; Buddhist ethics; Confucianist ethics; Christian ethics.

Overview

  • 1. What is philosophical ethics? The main issues.
  • 2. The main distinctions between schools of ethics.
  • 3. Ethics in Chinese and Indian thought.
  • 4. Ethics in Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
  • 5. Ethics in later Greek and Roman thought.
  • 6. Christian ethics.
  • 7. Renaissance and modern ethics.
  • 8. 19th and 20th century. Philosophy of life. Existentialism.
  • 9. Phenomenological and post modern ethics.

1. Kas yra filosofinë etika? Apibrëþimo problematiðkumas (filosofija kaip meilë iðminèiai, "þinau, kad nieko neþinau" (Sokratas)). Filosofinës etikos objektas: kà tyrinëja filosofinë etika? Ar ir kaip kito filosofinës etikos statusas? Pagrindinës filosofinës etikos problemos: a) gëris ir blogis; b) pareigos etika; c) laimës ir malonumo sàvokos etikoje; d) þinojimo ir gërio sàsajos; e) religija ir etinës problemos. Pagrindiniai filosofinës etikos klausimai: Kas yra teisinga?; Kas yra gëris?; Kas yra laimë?; Kà að privalau daryti?; Ko að galiu tikëtis? Filosofinës etikos ir religinës etikos skirtumai ir panaðumai.

What is philosophical ethics? The challenge of definition (philosophy as the love of wisdom, "I know that I know nothing" (Socrates)). The object of philosophical ethics: What does philosophical ethics investigate? Did change the status of philosophical ethics change and how? The main subjects of philosophical ethics: a) good and evil b) ethics of duty c) the concepts of happiness and pleasure in ethics; d) links between knowledge and the good e) religion and ethical problems. The main ethical questions: What is right? What is good? What is happiness? What must I do? What can I expect? The differences and similarities between philosophical ethics and religious ethics.

2. Etikos iðtakos. etinës sistemos ir mokyklos. Etikos ir moralës santykis ir perskyra. Etikos funkcijos: apraðomoji etika, normatyvinë etika; metaetika, taikomoji etika. Deontologinë (pareigos) ir teleologinë (tikslo) etika: deontologinës etikos savitumas ir pagrindiniai atstovai; teleologinës etikos savitumai ir pagrindiniai atstovai; jø skirtumai; pavyzdþiø analizë.

The origins of ethics. ethical systems and schools. The relation and divide between ethics and morality. The functions of ethics: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, metaethics, applied ethics. Deontological ethics (of duties) and teleological ethics (of ends): the peculiarities of deontological ethics and its main proponents; their differences; an analysis of examples.

3. Dorovës mokymas indø ir kinø màstymo tradicijose. Filosofinis ir etinis budizmo pagrindas: nepastovumas ir nuolatinë kaita, keturios tauriosios tiesos, taurusis kelias, gyvenimo kaip kanèios samprata, vidurio kelias, nuðvitimas ir Nirvana (Satori), karma, reinkarnacija, samsara. Aistrø ir jausmø áveikimas bei asketizmas; Kinø Daoistinë etika ir pagrindinës sàvokos (yin-yang, Dao, neveikimas, savaimingumas, nuolankumas, likimo meilë). Konfucianizmas: etikos praktiðkumas, valstybës valdymas ir politinë etika, valdovo-pavaldinio hierarchija, ðeimos etika, pagarba, ritualas. 1,5

Moral teaching in the traditions of indian and chinese thought. The foundaition of philosophical and ethical buddhism: inconstancy and perpetual change, the four Noble truths, the noble way, understanding of life as suffering, the middle way, enlightenment and Nirvana (Satori), karma, reincarnation, samsara. The overcoming of passions and feelings. Asceticism. Chinese Taoist ethics and main concepts (yin-yang, Tao, nonaction, naturalness, humility, love of fate). Confucianism: the practicality of ethics, ruling the state and politial ethics, the sovereign-subject hierarchy, family ethics, respect, ritual.

4. Etinës idëjos klasikinëje antikos filosofijoje. Sokrato etika. Sokrato ironija ir metodika ("þinau, kad nieko neþinau"). Sokrato gyvenimo iðminties samprata: "dorybë yra þinojimas"; Blogis ir ydos kaip neþinojimo iðdava. Sokrato apologija (veikalo analizë). Platono idealistinë etika. Platono politika ir utopinë valstybës teorija. Platono idëjø teorija (idëjø ir jusliø pasauliai, "Olos alegorija", gëris kaip aukðèiausioji idëja.). Valstybë (veikalo analizë). Aristotelio etika: Aristotelio dorybiø samprata; laimë kaip aukðèiausioji vertybë (eudeimonizmas); aukso vidurio idëja, nuosaikumas kaip pagrindinë vertybë; Politikos mokymas (valstybës teorija). 1,5

Ethical ideas in the classical philosophy of antiquity. Socrates's ethics. Socrates's irony and method ("I know that I know nothing"). Socrates's conception of the wisdom of life: "morality is knowing"; evil and vices as the consequence of not knowing. Apology of Socrates (an analysis of the work). Plato's idealistic ethics. Plato's politics and theory of the utopian state. Plato's theory of ideas (the worlds of ideas and senses, "the allegory of the cave", good as the supreme idea.). The Republic (an analysis of the work). Aristotle's ethics: Aristotle's concept of virtues; happiness as the highest value (eudaimonism); the idea of the golden mean, moderation as the main virtue; the teaching of politics (the theory of the state).

5. Etinës mokyklos helenistinëje graikijoje ir romoje. Helenistiniø etiniø mokyklø atsiradimas ir pagrindiniai bruoþai. Pagrindinës etinës mokyklos: Epikûrizmas: hedonizmas, malonumo siekimo ir nemalonumø vengimo etika; laimës reikðmë ir samprata, , poþiûris á mirtá; Stoicizmas: susilaikymo, abejingumo etika, afektø áveika ir apatijos siekis, stoiðka laimës bei laisvës interpretacija; stoikø poþiûris á iðtvermæ, skurdà, saviþudybæ. Cinizmas (kinizmas): neigimo, nesiskaitymo, asketizmo etika; Diogeno posakis "Neuþstok man saulës".

greece and rome. The arisal of the Hellenistic ethical schools Ethical schools in hellenistic 1,5 and their main features. The main ethical schools: Epicureanism: hedonism, the ethics of seeking pleasure and avoiding displeasure; the meaning and conception of happiness; the view of death; Stoicism: the ethics of abstinence, indifference, overcoming affects and striving for apathy, a Stoic interpretation of happiness and freedom; the Stoic view of endurance, poverty, suicide. Cinicism: the ethics of negation, disregard, asceticism; Diogenes's saying, "Stand out of my sunlight".

6. Krikðèioniðkos etikos pagrindai ir patristinë etika. Krikðèioniðkos etikos pagrindai ir pagrindinës dorybës: gailestingumas, nuolankumas, atlaidumas. Skaistybë kaip krikðèioniðkoji dorybë. Krikðèionio poþiûris á santuokà ir moterá. Kanèia kaip gyvenimo prasmë. Kaltës ir laisvës santykis. Nuodëmës ir atgailos reikðmë dvasiniam þmogaus tobulëjimui. Gërio ir blogio samprata krikðèionybëje: kodël egzistuoja blogis? Ar gëris ir blogis yra lygiaverèiai? Kas yra gëris? Krikðèioniðkasis ir pasaulietinis gyvenimo bûdai. Krikðèioniðkos ir pagoniðkos (antikinës) etikos skirtumai. Patristinës etikos atsiradimas kaip polemika su antikine pagoniðka etika. Pagrindiniai patristikos atstovai ir jø etinës idëjos: Ðv. Augustinas ir krikðèionio santykis su Dievu: su saviþudybe); Krikðèioniðkøjø viduramþiø savitumas. Krikðèioniðkoji etika.

ethics. The fundamentals of Christian ethics The fundamentals of Dievo christian samprata ethics and ir patristic NL(S) NL(Sav.) I(S) I(T) 1,5 and the main virtues: mercy, humility, forgiveness. Chastity as a Christian virtue. A Christian's view of marriage and women. Suffering as the meaning of life. The relation between guilt and freedom. The significance of sin and repentance for a person's spiritual growth. The conception of good and evil in Christianity: why does evil exist? Are good and evil analogous? What is good? The Christian and secular ways of life. Differences between Christian and pagan (antiquity's) ethics. The arisal of Patristic ethics as a polemic with antiquity's pagan ethics. The main representatives of Patristics and their ethical ideas: St.Augustine and a Christian's relationship with God: with suicide); the distinctness of the Christian Middle Ages. The Christian conception of God and ethics.

7. Renesanso ir naujøjø amþiø etika. Humanizmo, antikiniø idealø atgimimas ir pagrindiniai renesanso filosofijos bruoþai. P. Mirandola (humanizmo idëjos, þmogaus iðaukðtinimas, laisvos valios etika); N. Makiavelis (politinë filosofija, "Kunigaikðtis" kaip tobulo valdovo vadovëlis, cinizmas politikoje, moralës ir politikos atskyrimas). Naujøjø amþiø racionalistinë etika: Skeptiðkas racionalistø poþiûris á empirizmà; þmogus kaip racionalus gyvûnas: "Màstau, vadinasi egzistuoju". (Descartes). Vokieèiø idealizmas: deontologinë Kanto moralës filosofija ir etika: kategoriniai ir praktiniai imperatyvai; pareigos etika (deontologinë ir ideals of The ethics of the renaissance and the modern era. The etika). rebirth Racionalizmo of humanism and the 2 antiquity. The main features of Renaissance philosophy. P. Mirandola (ideas of humanism, the elevation of man, the ethics of free will); N. Machiavelli (political philosophy, "The Prince" as the textbook for the perfect ruler, cinicism in politics, the separation of morality and politics). The rationalistic ethics of the modern era: the rationalists' skeptical view of empiricism; man as a rational being: "I think, therefore I am". (Descartes). German idealism: Kant's deontological moral philosophy and ethics: categorical and practical imperatives; the ethics of duty (deontological ethics). The dispute between rationalism and empiricism. The empirical ethics of the modern era.

8. XIX-XX a. gyvenimo filosofijos ir egzistencializmo etika. Maiðtas prieð objektyvizmà, klasikinæ, racionalistinæ etikà. Pagrindinës gyvenimo filosofijos ir egzistencializmo etinës idëjos. Egzistencialistø posûkis á þmogø. Pagrindiniai egzistenciniai klausimai. S. Kierkegaardas: Trys gyvenimo stadijos: estetinë, etinë ir religinë; absurdo filosofija ir etika, absurdas krikðèionybëje; Abraomo auka. A. Shopenhaueris: valia gyventi, kanèia kaip gyvenimo prasmë, valia ir kanèia. F. Nietzsche's savikûros etika: silpnøjø ir stipriøjø moralë; likimo meilë ir laisva valia; valia galiai kaip savæs áveikimas ir sukûrimas; antþmogio; vertybiø perkainojimas ir Dievo mirtis;. A. Camus absurdo filosofija: prasmës ir beprasmybës dilema; egzistencializmas ir absurdo filosofija; etinës laikysena absurdo akivaizdoje. J.-P. Sartre'as: pasmerktumas laisvei, kito þvilgsnis; að ir kitas.

19th and 20th century ethics of philosophy of life and ethics of existentialism. The revolt against objectivism, classical, rational ethics. The main ethical ideas of philosophy of life and existentialism. The existentialist turn to the human being. The main existential questions. S.Kierkegaard: Three stages of life: aesthetic, ethical and religious; the philosophy of the absurd and ethics, absurdity in Christianity; Abraham's sacrifice. A.Schopenhauer: the will to live, suffering as the meaning of life, will and suffering. F.Nietzsche's ethics of self-creation: the morality of the weak and the strong; free will and love of fate; the will to power as overcoming oneself and creating oneself; the superman; the reappraisal of values and the death of God; A.Camus's philosophy of the absurd: the dilemma of meaningfulness and meaninglessness; existentialism and the philosophy of the absurd; an ethical stand in the face of absurdity. J.-P.Sartre: condemned to be free, perception by an Oth

9. Etinës idëjos fenomenologijoje ir postmodernizmo filosofijoje. Fenomenologija ir etika (E. Husserlis, M. Merleau-Ponty): etinës, estetinës ir psichologinës prieigø savitumai; suvokimo vientisumas, iðankstiniø nuostatø atsisakymas; Postmodernizmo etikos principai (J. Derrida; J. P. Lyotard; J. Baudrillard): gërio ir blogio kontekstualumas;

Ethical ideas in phenomenology and reliatyvizmas, postmodernist philosophy. Phenomenology and ethics (E. 2 Husserl, M.Merleau-Ponty): the distinctness of ethical, aesthetic and psychological approaches; the wholeness of understanding, the relinquishment of prejudice; Ethical principles of postmodernism (J.Derrida; J. P. Lyotard; J. Baudrillard): relativity of good and evil ; contextuality; fragmentariness of postmodern ethics; ethics and philosophy of culture. Ið viso: 15 Total:

  • ) Papildomas laukas pildomas tik tada, kada taikomas SD(M) kortelëje nenurodytas studijø bûdas: M - moduliais; C - ciklais; T - nuotolinis
  • ) Must be used in case study way does not fall into standard category: M - modules; C - periods; T - distance

scientific fields. critical thinking.

Exercises

  • List out areas in life where ethical dilemmas could arise for you some day.
  • List out commandments one should keep.
  • List out rules to follow and the consequences for not following the rules.
  • List out what advice you have taken from your elders.
  • List out what advice you would give to your children.

Videos

Sendel - Harvard - Justice Syllabus

Readings

Other sources

Wikipedia articles

What helps us make moral decisions?

  • Hume: moral feeling.
  • Smith: impartial spectator. Think of a person outside of our situation.
  • Rationality: give up our self - our self-interest, prejudice, bias - why a lawyer is helpful. Gets rid of emotions.
  • Dialogue: helps us consider the full variety of what self can mean, let go of any particular view of the self.
  • The cost of having alternatives - or the lack of alternatives - encouraging us to not negotiate prices
  • Utility maximisation.
  • Durkheim - Elementary Forms of Relgious Life - morality fostered by shared emotions. Children (animals) might not distinguish individual and collective selves - then taught to respect other selves - and to foster one's own self - and then to consciously embrace the collective self.

What is rationality?

  • Not subjective - not biased by the self.
  • Objective and formally evaluated.
  • Based on repeated interactions. Leads to established social rules.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2017/09/09/i-worked-with-elon-musk-and-learned-that-intelligence-is-not-the-key-to-success/#8934d9f6fd2d

One or many

self development self realization aristotle

Upcoming classes & Moodle

  • Exemplary people: Choose one who fits your system and choose one who doesn't fit your system but inspires you.
  • Work in small groups based on your shared value.
  • Watch a movie related to your value.

Kinas dorovės pamokoms:

The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, Modern Times, The Matrix, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, The Third Man, The Flicker, and Empire

  • 1) Define your reason why (for doing what you do).
  • 2) Define how it relates to several other reasons why.
  • 3) Give straightforward examples of how that applies to what you should do.
  • 4) Give examples that challenge your system and explain what makes them hard.
  • 5) Solve the challenges, showing how your system works together, how your main reason why leads the other reasons why.
  • 6) Discuss philosophers with similar ideas.

Assignment

  • 1) Choose one or two biggest challenges to your ethical reason why.
  • 2) Better define your reason why.
  • 3) Write exactly why the challenge is hard.
  • 4) Solve the challenge.

Values and thinkers

  • Survival - Maslow, Hobbes
    • Life - Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre - St.Augustine, Pascal, Tillich
    • Self-control - Stoics
    • Balance - Aristotle, Confucius
    • Personal development - Aristotle, Mencius
  • Happiness - Mill, Bentham
    • Personal freedom - Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau
    • Developing society - Mohammed, Confucius, Mencius
    • One with all - Buddha, Laotze, Jesus

How

  • How do we get ourselves to do what we should do?
  • What is the starkest decision?
  • Moral aspect - choice - are we separate or one?
  • What are the implications on our choice for our morality?
  • Choice is our life?
  • What choice are we making with our lives? How would we behave without our Reason Why?
  • What happens when people don't follow your Reason Why?
  • How could other people get themselves to follow your Reason Why?
  • (Relate to Kant: Having everyone follow the same Value)
  • If you have Why, then the consequences follow straightforwardly. But if you don't have that Why, then How teaches you how to foster it.
  • What's the biggest problem with the world?
  • What happens when people don't follow your value?
  • What if everybody followed your value?
  • What must other people do to live by your value?
  • What can you do to help other people live by your value?
  • What are examples where you are not living by your value?
  • Your conscious mind defines your value. In what sense is your unconscious mind unhappy with your value?
  • How could you live your value more intensely, fully, creatively?
  • How could you get yourself to do that?
  • What is the choice that could motivate you? Make the choice clear and stark.

These question will lead you to another important question which is key for your ethical system:

0) Who is You, your Self? Are we separate (as we happen to be) or are we one (as we should be)?

Note that your deepest value is an answer to the question, Who are You? If you think about that, then it can help you wonder, who are you identifying with. Just one person? Or who?

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