Representations of values
Steady-state = ketverybė.
24. Jaakson, K. 2010. Management by values: are some values better than others?, Journal of Management Development 29(9): 795 – 806.
35. Lencioni, P. M. 2002. “Make your values mean something”, Harvard Business Review 80(7): 113—17.
7. Bourne, H.; Jenkins, M. 2013. Organizational values: A dynamic perspective, Organization Studies 34: 495-514.
Each of the above signifies a distinct form of organizational values: espoused, attributed, shared and aspirational. We contend that each is a valid but partial representation of an organization’s values, and that the relationship between these forms is constantly fluctuating in ways that hitherto are unexplored.
The values construct is widely evoked in organizational literature, but tends to be compromised by lax conceptualization so that the progress of values research continues to be constrained by the lack of a common theoretical basis (Connor & Becker, 1994; Stackman, Pinder & Connor, 2000).
At the same time, organizational values are increasingly being used in practice to stimulate and enforce the alignment of behaviours (see, for example, Quappe, Samso-Aparici & Warshawsky, 2007), emphasizing a form of normative control (Ouchi, 1980) that raises a number of issues around effectiveness and ethics.