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Egzistencializmas, jo idėjinės ištakos, sklaida ir pėdsakas kultūroje

2020 m. birželio 30 d. LKTI Komparatyvistinių kultūros tyrimų skyrius rengia nukeltą nacionalinę konferenciją.

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Akistata su mirtimi išsako egzistencializmo esmę.

Egzistencializmo kraštutinumai atskleidžia jo ribotumą ir nepakankamumą. Taip kad jį pakeičia semiotika, simbolizmas ir galios sąvoka (Foucault).


Egzistencialistų sąrašas

  • Jean-Paul Sartre
  • Simone de Beauvoir
  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty
  • Karl Jaspers
  • Martin Buber
  • Jean Wahl
  • Gabriel Marcel
  • José Ortega y Gasset
  • Miguel de Unamuno
  • Nikolai Berdyaev
  • Lev Shestov
  • Paul Tillich
  • Antanas Maceina
  • Juozas Girnius
  • Arvydas Šliogeris

Savęs nevadino egzistencialistais

  • Albert Camus
  • Martin Heidegger

Rašytojai, kūrėjai

  • Jean Genet
  • André Gide
  • André Malraux
  • Samuel Beckett
  • Knut Hamsun
  • Eugene Ionesco
  • Alberto Giacometti
  • Jackson Pollock
  • Arshile Gorky
  • Willem de Kooning
  • Jean-Luc Godard
  • Ingmar Bergman

Egzistencializmo pirmtakai

  • Søren Kierkegaard
  • Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Fyodor Dostoevsky
  • Henrik Ibsen
  • Franz Kafka

Egzistencialistai apie mirtį

Egzistencialistai apie pomirtinį gyvenimą

Egzistencialistai apie palaikus, kapus ir kapines

  • Sartre, "Siena".

But it was not for this reason that I consented to die in his place; his life had no more value than mine; no life had value. They were going to slap a man up against a wall and shoot at him till he died, whether it was I or Gris or somebody else made no difference. I knew he was more useful than I to the cause of Spain but I thought to hell with Spain and anarchy; nothing was important. Yet I was there, I could save my skin and give up Gris and I refused to do it. I found that somehow comic; it was obstinacy. I thought, "I must be stubborn!" And a droll sort of gaiety spread over me.


I told them, "I know where he is. He is hidden in the cemetery. In a vault or in the gravediggers' shack." It was a farce. I wanted to see them stand up, buckle their belts and give orders busily. They jumped to their feet. "Let's go. Molés, go get fifteen men from Lieutenant Lopez. You," the fat man said, "I'll let you off if you're telling the truth, but it'll cost you plenty if you're making monkeys out of us."


"They got Gris."

I began to tremble. "When?"

"This morning. He messed it up. He left his cousin's on Tuesday because they had an argument. There were plenty of people to hide him but he didn't want to owe anything to anybody. He said, ' I'd go and hide in Ibbieta's place, but they got him, so I'll go hide in the cemetery.'"

"In the cemetery?"

"Yes. What a fool. Of course they went by there this morning, that was sure to happen. They found him in the gravediggers' shack. He shot at them and they got him."

"In the cemetery!"

Everything began to spin and I found myself sitting on the ground: I laughed so hard I cried.

Gary Cox. Existentialism and Excess: The Life and Times of Jean-Paul Sartre.

  • p.4. Sartre has been dead since 15 April 1980. His remains lie in Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris, alongside those of his great companion and intellectual sparring partner, Simone de Beauvoir, who joined him there in 1986. But he is certainly not forgotten. He tried his damnedest not to be forgotten, to immortalize himself. It was always his ultimate ambition from childhood to be a great, dead, French writer, the Voltaire of the twentieth century.
  • p.71. Both based in Paris at last, Sartre and de Beauvoir moved into a comfortable hotel near the Montparnasse Cemetery. True to form, they took separate rooms, a move that preserved the vitality of their relationship by preserving its essential freedom. 'Sartre lived on the floor above me; thus we had all the advantages of a shared life, without any of its inconveniences'
  • p.306-307. All that history condensed into a small wooden box, making its final journey through *his* Paris, past *his* cafes and restaurants, to the Montparnasse Cemetery. The vast crowd following the hearse merged with the vast crowd already gathered in and around the cemetery. They lined the walls, stood on graves and gravestones, pressing and surging to glimpse the end of an era. One man was accidentally pushed into the hole reserved for Sartre, others were injured in the general crush. Police and undertakers struggled to make room for the coffin and the chief mourners to emerge from the hearse. 'Atheism is a cruel, long-term business: I believe I have gone through it to the end' (Words, p.157) There were no religious words or gestures as they lowered the devout non-believer into the ground. There was, in fact, no ceremony or speech of any kind. Sartre was making the point that there was nothing to say, emphasizing the existential truth that one's own death is not something one can experience, but rather the limit of all experience. 'Death is no *my* possibility' (Being and Nothingness, p.568). Or to put it another way, life has no outside. His death was a major event for the thousands gathered, but for him it was an absolute non-event, and therefore it would have been absurd to utter incantations of any kind over his already rotting corpse. It is the irony of Sartrean ironies that a man utterly convinced that death is the end spent so much of his life striving to immortalize himself as a writer, as though he would somehow be present to enjoy his immortality. He became aware of this irony, this absurdity, but every person has to have some sort of goal in life. At least he could enjoy, while alive, the idea that he would be immortal. 'It is absurd that we are born; it is absurd that we die' (Being and Nothingness, p.567), but the real existential problem, as Sartre well knew, is how we occupy ourselves in between. A chair was found for de Beauvoir who was too grief stricken to stand. The crowd made just enough room for her to sit at his graveside; a small, forlorn figure devastated by Valium and inconsolable sorrow. As cameras clicked incessantly the other women tended her, kept a gentle hold on her, as though fearful she might try to follow him, her beloved other half, into his grave. "His death does separate us. My death will not bring us together again. This is how things are. It is in itself splendid that we were able to live our lives in harmony for so long." (Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre, p.127) Sartre's body was exhumed a few days later for cremation at the Pere Lachaise Cemetery. It was his express wish not to be buried at Pere Lachaise between his mother and Mancy. His ashes were returned to the grave at Montparnasse, a popular site of pilgrimage to this day.

Ken Ewell. The Philosophical Investigator: Paris.

  • One of the more interesting rituals of visiting Jean-Paul and Simone's adjoining gravesites is that it is customary to offer Jean-Paul a cigarette, and the brand does not seem to matter much. The reason for this is that, as evidenced in many a photograph, the acclaimed existentialist never had a picture taken without one dangling from what must have been his extremely tobacco-stained fingers.
  • the Catacombs. In 1786 the cemetery of Les Halles was deemed unsanitary, so the bones of the less than famous were brought to Montparnasse and placed underground. It's a fascinating and chilling place, and as well, it was used by the French Resistance during the Occupation. And to hide this fact, the resistance fighters engraved at the entrance the phrase "Arrete-

Wikipedia: Sartre

  • Sartre died on 15 April 1980 in Paris from edema of the lung. He had not wanted to be buried at Père-Lachaise Cemetery between his mother and stepfather, so it was arranged that he be buried at Montparnasse Cemetery. At his funeral on Saturday, 19 April, 50,000 Parisians descended onto boulevard du Montparnasse to accompany Sartre's cortege.[91][92] The funeral started at "the hospital at 2:00 p.m., then filed through the fourteenth arrondissement, past all Sartre's haunts, and entered the cemetery through the gate on the Boulevard Edgar Quinet". Sartre was initially buried in a temporary grave to the left of the cemetery gate.[93] Four days later the body was disinterred for cremation at Père-Lachaise Cemetery, and his ashes were reburied at the permanent site in Montparnasse Cemetery, to the right of the cemetery gate.

Finding Kierkegaard

Neil Gaiman, The Graveyard Book

Basic Writings of Existentialism edited by Gordon Marino

  • Kierkegaard's surname means "churchyard" in Danish (with all the familiar connotations of "graveyard".

1959. Richard Edward Palmer. A Study of Existentialism in Certain Poems by Charles Baudelaire, A Study of Existentialism in Certain Poems by Charles Baudelaire, R.M. Rilke, and T.S. Eliot R.M. Rilke, and T.S. Eliot

  • Small wonder, then, that Maurice Natanson, in his study of Sartre’s ontology, asserts that Existentialism can no longer be defined: "Existentialism" today refers to faddism, decaden-tism, morbidity, the "philosophy of the graveyard"; to words like fear, dread, anxiety, anguish, suffering, aloneness, death; to novelists such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Dostoievski, Camus, Kafka; to philosophers like Kierke­gaard, Heidegger, Marcel, Jaspers, and Sartre — and because it refers to, and is concerned with, all of these ideas and persons, existentialism has lost any clearer meaning it may have originally possessed. Because it has so many definitions, it can no longer be defined. Existentialism has come to mean so many things to so many different people that it no longer means anything at all

Paul Richard Olson. Unamuno; an Existential View of Self and Society.

  • "to live is to be dying and to be born again. The person that I am today, my self today, buries my self of yesterday, just as my self of tomorrow will bury today's self. The soul is a cemetery wherein lie all our selves that desisted, all those that we were. But we are left with the consolation of dreaming that when our final self arrives, the one in death, all those that we were, angels of our infancy and yuoth, will hasten to come round our bed to console us in our last solitude" (VII, 827)

Amir Hosain. The Impact of Existentialism in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. February 2015



Life Energies, Forces and the Shaping of Life: Vital, Existential: Book I, edited by Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

  • Quite remarkably, Husserl himself devised this extension of empathy, and even indicated the possibility of empathy with a dead body, a corpse whose remains are constituted just of bones: "Ideally," he wrote in Appendix 25 of Die Grund Problem der Phaenomenologie, "the human experiences of one hundred thousand years ago have an intersubjective value, even in relation to us and even if any form of direct relationship with us is missing. But it is, in theory, possible. Yet, an empty possibility is not sufficient; there have to be real possibilities. This need to be more precisely determined."


Existentialism. Alison Stone. The Oxford Handbook of Atheism

  • Camus appears, at first sight, to endorse a similar moral relativism in The Outsider (L’Étranger), his novel published in 1942 with The Myth of Sisyphus and the play Caligula as a trilogy of the absurd. The protagonist Meursault admits the indifference of the world around him. Refusing to pretend that any events or objects in it have inherent value or disvalue, he constantly describes them as bare, brute occurrences and items without emotional significance—as in the novel’s well-known opening lines: ‘Mother died today. Or maybe yesterday. I don’t know. I had a telegram from the home: “Mother passed away. Funeral tomorrow. Yours sincerely.” That doesn’t mean anything. It may have been (p. 287) yesterday’ ([1942] 1982: 9). Meursault is often morally neutral about events that we might expect to arouse his moral repugnance or remorse. He shoots an Arab man whom he perceives to have been threatening him and his friends, committing the murder apparently without motive: his only explanation is that he did it because of the glare and heat of the sun. He then fires four more times at the dead body; after all, this does not have the intrinsic meaning of desecrating the corpse, for no intrinsic meanings exist.


  • Second, the dead body is an aporetic Being/being, since it is no-longer-Being-in-the-world but still more than beings present-at-hand or ready-to-hand (Ciocan, 87). The difficulty of ontologically categorizing the remains of Dasein jeopardizes the three ontological categories in Heidegger’s proposition in Being and Time: Dasein, entities present-at-hand (Vorhandenes), and entities ready-to-hand (Zuhandenes). Third, in a peculiar way, the deceased has abandoned the world and no-longer-Being-there, or Being-with-others, yet others can still be with him. This asymmetrical relation of the “Being-with” leads to a question of Dasein’s existential structure: to what extent is Dasein in a relation with some entity no-longer-being-there?Accordingly, these problems challenge the ontological distinction between Dasein’s bodily nature (Leiblichkeit) and corporeality (Körperlichkeit) in Heidegger. First, for Heidegger, the as-structure of bodying forth (Leiben) is what distinguishes the two types of bodily nature. As discussed, bodying-forth as a way of Dasein’s understanding of the world through “clearing”, and it always already opens to the “Da” (“there”) and remains ecstatic beyond the corporeal boundary of the “here”. As such, Dasein’s bodily nature (Leiblichkeit) is co-determined by its Being-in-the-world, not its being-alive. However, Heidegger’s designation of the dead human body as that which “has lost its life” flies in the face of the lived body that does not take “having its life” as much as “Being-in-the-world” as a co-determinant of its structure. Accordingly, the ontological significance of lifehood in Heidegger’s account for the dead body poses a threat to the lived body that bases its structure on Dasein’s Being-in-the-world. If lifehood is taken into account in Dasein’s bodily nature (Leiblichkeit), then the ontological distinction between the animal and Dasein deserves a reconsideration, since animals as organisms are also lively. Moreover, Heidegger’s ambiguity in the ontological categorization of the dead body of Dasein

19shows that the dead body could be counted as still a “who” / “he”, yet no-longer-being-there. If an entity could be a “who” without a “there”, then it contravenes the co-belonging of bodying forth and the “there” in the as-structure of Dasein’s bodily nature (Leiblichkeit) which is, in each case, my way of Being-there. This leads to the third challenge. As Heidegger indicates, despite the deceased no-longer-being-there, those who remain can still be with him. Thus the loss of the world does not deprive the deceased human of a relation with Daseins who are still in the world—though it is an asymmetrical one. It is then unclear how the animals’ being poor-in-the-worldis non-relational, whereas Dasein’s dead bodily being, the loss-of-the-world,still stays in an asymmetrical “Being-with” relation to those who are still Being-in-the-world

Wikipedia: Existentialism.

  • Like Kierkegaard, Sartre saw problems with rationality, calling it a form of "bad faith", an attempt by the self to impose structure on a world of phenomena—"the Other"—that is fundamentally irrational and random. According to Sartre, rationality and other forms of bad faith hinder people from finding meaning in freedom. To try to suppress their feelings of anxiety and dread, people confine themselves within everyday experience, Sartre asserts, thereby relinquishing their freedom and acquiescing to being possessed in one form or another by "the Look" of "the Other" (i.e., possessed by another person—or at least one's idea of that other person).[


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