调查

摘要

神的舞蹈

经历的道

知识的房子

神的调查

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Žr. Sveikata, Elgesys, Rūkymas

Nikotinas, C10H14N2

Kiekis

  • e-cigaretėse mažiau kaip rūkant
  • rūkant cigarus, pypkes, dūmai neįtraukiami, įtraukiama mažiau nikotino kaip rūkant cigaretes, Armitage, A. K.; Turner (1970). "Absorption of Nicotine in Cigarette and Cigar Smoke through the Oral Mucosa". Nature 226 (5252): 1231–1232. Bibcode 1970Natur.226.1231A. DOI:10.1038/2261231a0. PMID 5422597
  • Chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco, snus ir snuff - kūnui daugiau nikotinu suteikia negu rūkymas.
  • Menthol prailgina nikotino išlikimą kūne, Benowitz NL, Herrera B, Jacob P 3rd., NL; Herrera, B; Jacob P, 3rd (2004). "Mentholated Cigarette Smoking Inhibits Nicotine Metabolism". J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310 (3): 1208–15. DOI:10.1124/jpet.104.066902. PMID 15084646.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine

Priklausomybė

Research suggests that, when smokers wish to achieve a stimulating effect, they take short quick puffs, which produce a low level of blood nicotine.[52] This stimulates nerve transmission. When they wish to relax, they take deep puffs, which produce a high level of blood nicotine, which depresses the passage of nerve impulses, producing a mild sedative effect. At low doses, nicotine potently enhances the actions of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, causing a drug effect typical of those of psychostimulants. At higher doses, nicotine enhances the effect of serotonin and opiate activity, producing a calming, pain-killing effect. Nicotine is unique in comparison to most drugs, as its profile changes from stimulant to sedative/pain killer in increasing dosages and use.

Technically, nicotine is not significantly addictive, as nicotine administered alone does not produce significant reinforcing properties.[53] However, after coadministration with an MAOI, such as those found in tobacco, nicotine produces significant behavioral sensitization, a measure of addiction potential.

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Puslapis paskutinį kartą pakeistas 2012 liepos 18 d., 15:03