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Rimantas Zizas. Vietinė savisauga (savigyna) Lietuvoje nacių Vokietijos okupacijos metais (1941–1944) III dalis Vietinė savisauga nuo 1941 m. Iki 1943 m. rudens. Nesėkmingi bandymai kurti ginkluotą savisaugą http://www.straipsniai.lt/lietuvos_istorija/puslapis/9199

The Truth and Nothing But the Truth: Jewish Resistance in Lithuania By Aleḳs Faiṭelson, Lietūkio garažo žudynės.

Dalis Pasvalio žydų ryžosi krikštytis, bet tai jiems nepadėjo, juos vistiek sušaudė. http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/lita/lit1859.html

Kuniuchowsky rinkinys liudijimų, sąrašas 1,300 vietinių kaltininkų http://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Efraim-Zuroff-reviews-3-books-Haaretz-Sept-2012.pdf

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 19 July 11, 1941

In the border region of Lithuania, the Stapo Tilsit carried out further large-scale operations. Thus, on July 2, 133 persons were shot in Tauroggen; on July 3, 322 persons (among them 5 women) in Georgenburg; in Augustowo 316 persons (among them 10 women); and in Mariampol 68 persons.

 I addition, the following executions were carried out:
 1. GPP. Schirwindt
 in Wladislawo (Newstadt) and vicinity 192 persons
 2. GPP. Laugszargen
 in Tauroggen and vicinity 122 persons
 3. GPK. Memel or GPP. Bajohren
 in Krottingen and vicinity 63 persons
 4. GPP Schmalleningken 1 person

Thus, till now a total of 1743 persons have been shot. The higher SS and Police Commander, the commander of the Army's Rear Area North, SS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant (Lieutant General) of the Police Preutzmann reports:

The commander of the Army Area North offered to take over security in the area from the border of the Reich to the line Grodna-Kaunas-Jubarkas-Tauroggen-Rietavas-Darbona-Baltic Sea to the temporary Corps Headquarters 1, together with his forces. The commander of the Army Rear Area has proposed a corresponding motion to the Quartermaster General. The area to be covered has become too large, as a consequence of the fact that the eastern boundary of the Army's Rear Area has been moved forward. Thus, I have ordered the commander of the ORPO in Königsberg/Prussia, in accordance with the authorization given by the Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police and Chief of the ORPO, to take over the area of Lake Wystit-Mariampol-Kaunas-Jurbarkas-Tauroggen-Tietaveas-Barbenai-Baltic Sea with his own forces. An agreement with the commander of the Army Rear Area North and the commander of the ORPO Köningsberg/Prussia, the forces needed have been determined. The area will probably be taken over on July 12 or 13, 1941. Otherwise the situation in the area of Kaunas is quiet. Only in isolated cases members of the Red Army who had been separated from their units were lying in ambush and shooting at units. This is the reason why up to now the Wehrmacht and the Police did not carry out more severe measures. The members of the Red Army who were hidden in the woods and in other hiding places, driven by hunger, surface and surrender, in most cases by showing the white flag. The attitude of the Lithuanian population is friendly towards the Germans so far. They help the German soldiers, the police officials, and the other organizations already functioning in this area as much as possible. Their cooperation consists chiefly in looking for and turning over Lithuanian Communists, dispersed Red Army soldiers, and Jews. After the retreat of the Red Army, the population of Kaunas killed about 2,500 Jews during a spontaneous uprising. In addition, a rather large number of Jews was shot by the Auxiliary Police Service.

Einsatzgruppe A

 Location: Riga

1. In Kaunas, up to now a total of 7,800 Jews have been liquidated partly through pogroms and partly through shooting by Lithuanian Kommandos. All of the corpses have been removed. Further mass shootings are no longer possible. Therefore, I summoned a Jewish committee and explained that up to now we had no reason to interfere with the internal arrangements between Lithuanians and the Jews.

Foundations for a "New Order":

The establishment of a Jewish ghetto; identifying all the Jews with a yellow Star of David, 8 by 10 cm. in size, to be worn on the left breast; and the separate housing of women and children, for possible release on our orders by the Lithuanians and by a Jewish Relief Committee in the new ghetto. The town of Viliampol was designated as the location of the ghetto. The resettlement must be carried out within 4 weeks. Prisons now are being searched once more. Some Jews, for special reasons, are being arrested and shot. This will involve a minor number of executions, only 50 to 100 persons. To prevent Jews from returning to Kaunas, an agreement was made with the Higher SS and Police Leader that the ORPO draw a cordon around Kaunas not allowing any Jews to enter the town. If necessary, Jews will be fired upon. All Wehrmacht agencies were informed of the directives. About 250 men of the Lithuanian [anti-Soviet] partisans were left and are being sustained by us as a Sonderkommando and are being employed for future executions outside the town.

2. Units of Einsatzkommando 3 are presently working at Mariampol and Raseinial. After finishing their tasks, they will rejoin the Hauptkommando.

3. The Wehrmacht has received a new directive ordering it not to recognize the newly formed Lithuanian Government, but to make use of it.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 24 July 16, 1941

Einsatzkommando 9

 Location: Vilnius 

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 31 July 23, 1941

5. Einsatzkommando 9 Location: Vileyka

Mood and Situation in the Occupied Territories

  • * *

Continued tension persists between Lithuanians and Poles in the Vilna district, but no open clashes occur, due to the German Army's presence. Many rumors are circulating concerning imminent Polish action. Four additional Lithuanian-organized groups were uncovered which have, so far, not been active, according to our information. The control of the sermons in Vilnius has resulted in a generally positive political attitude.

A Jewish-Polish secret organization exists in Vilnius and its environs. It has set itself the task of reestablishing by force Polish sovereignty. The organization which is said to be very large in number is divided into sections in the town and country of the Vilnius district. They are said to have machine guns, rifles, pistols and hand grenades. The organization is also said to possess a secret transmitter. An agent was planted in the organization. We expect to uncover it within 2-3 days.

There exists complete agreement with the commander of the Rear Army Area concerning the treatment of partisans and soldiers in civilian clothes. Large actions are initiated with participation of the security police. Proceedings are carried out with utter ruthlessness.

The number of liquidations reported on July 14, 1941 is 4,243 and by July 19 has increased by an additional 3,386. Has orders to send an advance unit to Vileyka. Because of a short surprise fire fight against the Vilnius Security Police Headquarters a special liquidation was carried out in excess of daily liquidation quotas.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 36 July 28, 1941

e. The antagonism between Poland and Lithuania continues in the district of Vilnius. Poles feel disadvantaged in the distribution of goods. Lithuanians believe that they have the right to arrest Poles and to confiscate their belongings. There is, however, a general agreement with the measures taken by the Germans, particularly with the proceedings against the Jews. It was established that the above-mentioned Lithuanian organization has dissolved spontaneously with the advance of the German forces. The active forces went over to the activist [collaborating] groups. Activity of Schaulists has increased in the university. Tension between Fascist and Catholic groups can be noticed there. Fascist groups are in the minority.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 48 August 10, 1941

Einsatzgruppe A Location: Novoselye

Security Police work develops according to plan. Both in Kaunas and Riga efficient offices have been set up which may be considered to be permanent. At the same time, accommodations for the men of the operational units and married quarters for later use (sufficient for the time being), were provided. The mopping up of the rear zone, partly with the assistance of Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary units, continues according to plan. In all 29,000 persons were liquidated in this district. As the combat troops had gained only little terrain during the past fortnight, the forces of the security police in the combat zone proper, with the armored group of the 16th and 18th Armies, were busy mopping up what little terrain had been gained, and fighting the partisans.

During his stay in Riga, the SS Reichsführer mentioned that he intends to set up police formations consisting of Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Ukrainians, etc., employing them outside of their own home areas. This is possible right away if this is done here in the old Soviet areas. After this task is completed, they will be used as police units, also outside their own home areas. Since the Army Group urgently demands a quick solution because of the difficult situation with the partisans and the difficulties involving the dual front, the Einsatzgruppe urgently asks for general instructions how to deal with this question.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 53 August 15, 1941

Since July 25th the Reichskommissar for Ostland, Gauleiter Lohse, and the Military Commander, Lieutenant-General Bremer, are operating in Kaunas. District commissars have been assigned to Lithuania and to the areas west of the Dvina, and they have gradually started their work. It appears that nowhere are there concrete plans and guiding principles. The commissars started their work in various ways. While the town commissar in Kaunas proceeded promptly in [initiating] the first actions, in a manner similar to those in Polish areas, district commissars approached the competent Einsatzkommandos with the request to execute Communists and Jews. Elsewhere, among them Kaunas, talks were arranged between the responsible commanders of the Security Police and the district commissars which will, hopefully, result in successful cooperation.

The Reichskommissar for Ostland in Kaunas has prepared a draft of a decree concerning guidelines for the treatment of Jews in the area of the Reichskommissariat Ostland and has handed it to the Higher SS and Police Commander.

The draft is similar to those issued in Holland, the Polish areas, etc. We foresee its distribution among the Higher SS and Police Commandos. However, it doesn't mention the cooperation with or the competence of the Security Police.

Žr. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hinrich_Lohse Ar jisai sušvelnino akcijas? ir pradėjo geto laikotarpį? kaip kad Olandijoje? ir Lenkijoje?

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=691551#691551 Operational Situation Report USSR No. 54 August 16, 1941

Einsatzgruppe A Location: Riga EK 3 Kaunas

Organization of the Catholic Church in Lithuania

The attitude of the Church regarding the Jewish question is, in general, clear. In addition, Bishop Brisgys has forbidden all clergymen to help Jews in any form whatsoever. He rejected several Jewish delegations who approached him personally and asked for his intervention with the German authorities. In the future he will not meet with any Jews at all. Conversion of Jews to the Catholic faith did not take place so far. The Church would also object to this type of conversion. It is convinced that the Jews would not come [to be converted] out of conviction but because of the possible advantages connected with it.

The auxiliary police service companies were taken over by the regular police. They were given green armbands marked "Schutzmannschaften."

Again, vast political material was captured in Kaunas. Besides, political material was secured in offices and flats.

The ghettoization of the Jews in Kaunas, numbering about 25,000, is in full swing. Altogether, about 10,000 Jews have been resettled. The registration office (of the Lithuanian Sipo) has completed, under German supervision, a card index containing data on all Jews in Kaunas. The Jewish committee will also report soon on the financial situation and the professional use of the individual Jews.

http://www.feldgrau.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=47&t=33685

In Lithuania, many Hiwis came from the ranks of "partisans", who as part of the Lithuanian National Front had started an anti-Soviet uprising at the very beginning of the German invasion. One such group of 600 commanded by a journalist, Jonas Klimaitis, murdered 3,800 Jews in Kaunas (Kovno) and a further 1,200 in other towns. From their ranks, five police companies were formed. Shortly after the German occupation of Lithuania, a reorganization of these groups occurred.

In July 1941, many units in Kaunas and elsewhere were incorporated into a paramilitary organization, the Tauto Darbo Apsauga (National Labour Guard). In Vilnius and in other places the corresponding military organization was named the Lietuvia Savisaugos Dalys (Lithuanian Self Defence). With their assistance and that of others, by the end of 1941 about 175,000 or 80% of Lithuanian Jews had been killed.

A declaration issued after the war by Lithuanian Jews in the American zone in Germany concluded: "The small places in the Lithuanian provinces, without any exception, were erased by the Lithuanians." Survivor testimony concerning Lithuanian small towns and shtetls hardly mention the Germans and make it clear that Lithuanians perpetrated most of the killing, generally without the presence of any German officials. The paramilitary formations were subsequently absorbed into the Policiniai Batalionai (Lithuanian Police Battalions).

By August 1942, 20 such battalions were in existence, with a complement of 8,388 officers and other ranks. The battalions had German liason officers assigned to them and were directly subordinated to the SS-und Polizeiführer in Lithuania. After these Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft battalions had been set up, many units participated in killing operations in Byelorussia, the Ukraine and Poland. At least two companies of the Lithuanian 12th Schutzmannschaft Battalion, for example, were attached to the German 11th Reserve Police Battalion under Major Franz Lechthaler, which was sent to Minsk in the autumn of 1941. Two battalions were posted to KZ Majdanek and were responsible for executions there and in the nearby Krepiec Forest.

Hundreds of other individuals served as guards at various different camps. But even in the killing squads, it was sometimes possible to refuse to participate in shootings without suffering dire consequences. When members of the 2nd Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft Battalion were ordered to shoot Jews in the Byelorussian town of Rudensk, a young man said that he could not kill people. The Lithuanian company commander suggested that all of those who could not shoot step back. 15-17 men did so, and watched the shooting by their compatriots from a distance of 20-30 m. The battalion conducted subsequent shooting operations with less hesitation. An anti-Nazi underground Lithuanian publication asked in 1943: "Do we have to be the Arch-hangmen of Europe? The Germans who shoot Jews now will shoot us later, and the world will support them because Lithuanians are hangmen and sworn sadists."

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=76709 Einsatzkommando 3 in Lithuania, 1941

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Puslapis paskutinį kartą pakeistas 2012 spalio 02 d., 06:04
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