手册

数学

发现

Andrius Kulikauskas

  • ms@ms.lt
  • +370 607 27 665
  • My work is in the Public Domain for all to share freely.

Lietuvių kalba

Software

Book.20171124CoordinatingActivity istorija

Paslėpti nežymius pakeitimus - Rodyti galutinio teksto pakeitimus

2017 lapkričio 25 d., 14:55 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 14:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrinta 373 eilutė:
Pakeistos 380-383 eilutės iš
į:
I first worked out this overall system in documenting and systematizing the ways of figuring things out. Indeed, it very nicely organizing the techniques involved in solving mathematical problems. I think we'd get the same system if we looked at the ways of figuring things out in physics, medicine, business, or any other discipline, or those used by any particular individual. That's endlessly worthwhile to explore.

Such a universal grammar for creating a shared world and, indeed, for figuring it out, is precisely what is needed for children to learn language. A universal system means that they know the various ways they should try to find meaning and make meaning, to understand others and to be understood.
Pakeistos 390-392 eilutės iš
Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life changes when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. We thus ground our life in that which is beyond it. I suppose that then we are born again, and we can dare to live life by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.
į:
I hope to have shown that innovation games are very helpful anthropological data because they invariably have a purpose which lets us know where they might fit in a broader game. We can think of our entire culture as a game that we could engineer together.

Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What
is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life ends, in one sense, when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. But it begins anew, as an eternally unfolding life, in that we dare to live by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 14:41 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 368-386 eilutės iš
į:
I think these eight games straddle the two representations of the Foursome, the questions that we consciously ask and the answers which our unconscious provides. We enter a game asking a question, and we leave it with some answer. Semantically, in the big picture, it must all relate to other people. And the game represents a shift in our sense of agency. The innovation game "5 Whys" has us chase down the reason for why we're playing, the why upon why upon why upon why upon why. But then we have to likewise empathize with others, to respect them and include them, and there are games for all of that. By the time that we leave the game, our focus has shifted to what we have achieved with others, to their dreams, their positions, and their self-definitions. And this lets us appeal to a bigger audience, the broader society, or the corporate customer out there.

What this means is that our sense of agency shifts. Syntactic thinking allows us to convert our internal sense of agency in terms of agents, beneficiaries and goals, into an external sense of agency in terms of instruments, themes and locations. But these are precisely the six levels of the Kiparsky gradation of thematic roles, and closely related to the case system underlying Indoeuropean languages. Thus the case system appears to be conveying the most basic semantic distinctions.

Such semantic distinctions may also be natural to memory. In studying spoken and written languages, it is amazing that the most irregular words or characters are typically among the most common. It is precisely the uncommon words which tend to have regularities. But this makes perfect as we think of memory as a set of compartments waiting to be filled. If we have an empty compartment, then we can remember from a single occurence that something fits within it. And we seem to remember not what satisfied the compartment, but rather, we recognize that we have a compartment that we didn't know about before. It doesn't really matter what fills the compartments until we start to lack room. Then in order to squeeze things in we have to discover regularities. This simple theory explains why it is easy to learn a first language but why it is difficult to learn a second language if all of the relevant compartments are already filled.


-------------

Attach:L41.png

-------------


-------------

Attach:L42.png

-------------
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 14:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 356-359 eilutės iš
What these games are doing is answering a question with a question, which is to say, extending syntactic obligations with more obligations. Linguistically, I think this could describe how we construct microobligations as we roll out our sentences. The fact is that when we start speaking a sentence we may have no idea how it is going to end. This shows that the traditional syntactic views are absurdly false. Instead, it seems clear that as we construct our thought, we variously commit ourselves and have to keep talking until we satisfy all of our commitments to ourselves and others. These commitments include tracking case, tense, number, gender, using definite or indefinite articles, and measure words. It is curious that, in practice, there are no simple languages, so that a language like Japanese seems to compensate for its regularity by using a dauntingly complicated set of honorifics.
į:
What these games are doing is answering a question with a question, which is to say, extending syntactic obligations with more obligations. Linguistically, I think this could describe how we construct microobligations as we roll out our sentences. The fact is that when we start speaking a sentence we may have no idea how it is going to end. This shows that the traditional syntactic views are absurdly false. Instead, it seems clear that as we construct our thought, we variously commit ourselves and have to keep talking until we satisfy all of our commitments to ourselves and others. These commitments include tracking case, tense, number, gender, using definite or indefinite articles, and measure words. It is curious that, in practice, there are no simple languages, so that Japanese seems to compensate for its regularity by using a dauntingly complicated set of honorifics. I suspect the reason is that these microobligations are precisely what allow us to unpack first the syntax and then the semantics of a sentence as we keep track of what we are hearing.

Answering a question with a question is a way of freeing ourselves from semantics. There are situations where we can't rely on anything we know. For example, how do I know that if I say "whizzlesticks" this building won't collapse tomorrow? I reply with a counterquestion, What do I have control over? If the building is so curiously designed, can it truly be my fault? Indeed, there are six such counterquestions which distinguish the four levels of knowledge, and helps us get by without any semantic knowledge.
Pridėtos 365-366 eilutės:

Finally, there are four games by which we enter into a game and four games by which we leave it. These are games that have us honor the purpose, Why we are playing the game, and honor the outcome, What we got out of it.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 13:56 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrintos 349-356 eilutės:






Pridėtos 355-356 eilutės:

What these games are doing is answering a question with a question, which is to say, extending syntactic obligations with more obligations. Linguistically, I think this could describe how we construct microobligations as we roll out our sentences. The fact is that when we start speaking a sentence we may have no idea how it is going to end. This shows that the traditional syntactic views are absurdly false. Instead, it seems clear that as we construct our thought, we variously commit ourselves and have to keep talking until we satisfy all of our commitments to ourselves and others. These commitments include tracking case, tense, number, gender, using definite or indefinite articles, and measure words. It is curious that, in practice, there are no simple languages, so that a language like Japanese seems to compensate for its regularity by using a dauntingly complicated set of honorifics.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 13:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 341 eilutė iš:
There are six innovation games which almost purely syntactic in that they focus on the game itself. They reorganize and visualize the components. Note that our unconscious mind is built from a network of associations, whereas the grammar of our games allows for sequences of games - horizontally, games after games - and trees of games - vertically, games within games. Thus their are games which take a large structure which our unconscious has mastered - a sequence, tree or web - and restructure it with a smaller structure that our conscious is exploring. This yields six familiar visualizations but also six paradoxes which highlight the gap between the structures. Thus these games give us intutition by highlighting inherent paradox.
į:
There are six innovation games which are almost purely syntactic in that they focus on the game itself. They reorganize and visualize the components. Note that our unconscious mind is built from a network of associations, whereas the grammar of our games allows for sequences of games - horizontally, games after games - and trees of games - vertically, games within games. Thus their are games which take a large structure which our unconscious has mastered - a sequence, tree or web - and restructure it with a smaller structure that our conscious is exploring. This yields six familiar visualizations but also six paradoxes which highlight the gap between the structures. Thus these games give us intutition by highlighting inherent paradox.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 13:45 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 342-353 eilutės:

* Evolution: A hierarchy (of variations) is restructured with a sequence (of times). The paradox is that concepts may be inexact.We can't specify exactly at what point in the womb a child becomes conscious, or at what point in evolution two species diverge.
* Atlas: A network (of adjacency relations) is restructured with a hierarchy (of global and local views). The paradox is that the whole is not the sum of the parts. If we replace all of the parts of an automobile, and then build a copy with all of the old parts, which is the original?
* Handbook: A sequence (of instructions) is restructured with a network (of loops and branches). The paradox is that our attention affects what we observe. Achilles can never catch a tortoise if we keep measuring the distance between them.
* Chronicle: A sequence (of events in time) is restructured with a hierarchy (of time periods). The paradox is that there may be a limited contradiction. How can we reliably learn from one who has ever made a mistake?
* Catalog: A hierarchy (of concepts) is restructured with a network (of cross-links). The paradox is that we cannot make explicit all relevant assumptions. 10+4 may equal 2 if we happen to be thinking about a clock.
* Tour: A network (of states) is restructured with a sequence (of steps). The paradox is that we can choose differently in the same circumstances. "I am lying when I say 'I am lying.'"



2017 lapkričio 25 d., 13:37 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 341-342 eilutės iš
Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life changes when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. We thus ground our life in that which is beyond it. I suppose that then we are born again, and we can dare to live life by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.
į:
There are six innovation games which almost purely syntactic in that they focus on the game itself. They reorganize and visualize the components. Note that our unconscious mind is built from a network of associations, whereas the grammar of our games allows for sequences of games - horizontally, games after games - and trees of games - vertically, games within games. Thus their are games which take a large structure which our unconscious has mastered - a sequence, tree or web - and restructure it with a smaller structure that our conscious is exploring. This yields six familiar visualizations but also six paradoxes which highlight the gap between the structures. Thus these games give us intutition by highlighting inherent paradox.

Pakeistos 350-362 eilutės iš
-------------
į:
-------------



-------------

Attach:L40.png

-------------



Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life changes when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. We thus ground our life in that which is beyond it. I suppose that then we are born again, and we can dare to live life by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 12:10 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 321-322 eilutės iš
There are innovation games which ground our meaning in the bigger picture. Bodystorming has us physically feel the implications of our ideas. History Map has us appreciate our corporate culture as a basis for agreement. Plus Delta has us incrementally improve by acknowledging what is good and what could be better. Design the Box has us invert our perspective by considering the customer's point of view.
į:
There are innovation games which ground our meaning in the bigger picture. Bodystorming has us physically feel the implications of our ideas. History Map has us appreciate and acknowledge our corporate culture as the basis for agreement. Plus Delta has us incrementally improve by acknowledging what is good and what could be better. Design the Box has us invert our perspective by considering the customer's point of view.
Pakeistos 329-331 eilutės iš
These four games are dialectics which help us distinguish between the conditional truth of the game and the unconditional truth beyond it. For example, there was a time when I felt riled in my encounters with the homeless, when they asked me for money, and I felt that I was in a game that was wrong. I believed that my help could make things worse. But then I realized that there was another truth, that if somebody asked for help or needed help, then I should help. I came up with four tests which distinguished the conditional truth of the game from the unconditional truth of the world. The first test was that I was feeling riled and so I was thinking wrong, I had confused the two truths. If I was thinking right, then I would feel calm. The second test is that the unconditional truth leads to the conditional truth, but not the other way around. If I try to help, then I won't want to make things worse, but if I focus on my help not making things worse, then I will never help anybody. The third test is that we can learn the conditional truth from examples - I can describe how my help has made things worse. But the unconditional truth is tautological, we can't show it and it must have always been inside of us - there is no way to show that we "should" help others. Finally, on any subject, such as helping others, we can consider four questions: whether, what, how and why, and the unconditional truth always asks the broader question. What help do we give - we don't make things worse. But why do we help - because we should. I have found these four tests to agree. We can think them of them as looking at the game from within it and beyond it, entering it and leaving it.

In basketball
, this means that you should not cheat, but play fair. In linguistics, it means that different factors can redeem a sentence or make it unacceptable, including our greater or lesser processing power, the abundance or lack of relevant context, syntactic flexibility or violations, and inspiring or confusing stylistic emphases.
į:
These four games are dialectics which help us distinguish the semantic truth and the syntactic truth. The semantic truth is the conditional truth of the game, which expresses what our unconscious mind knows. The syntactic truth is the unconditional truth beyond all games, which expresses what our conscious mind does not know. Both truths are true, but they pull us in different directions. We should focus on the syntactic truth as the relevant truth and live in terms of what we don't know. Syntax makes semantics relevant, but not the other way around.

For example, there was a time when I felt riled in my encounters with
the homeless. They would ask me for money, and I felt that I was in a game that was wrong. I believed that my help could make things worse. But then I realized that there was another truth, that if somebody asked for help or needed help, then I should help. I came up with four tests which distinguished the narrower semantic truth of the game from the bigger syntactic truth. The first test was that I was feeling riled and so I was thinking wrong, I had confused the two truths. If I was thinking right, then I would feel calm. The second test is that the syntactic truth leads to the semantic truth, but not the other way around. If I try to help, then I won't want to make things worse, but if I focus on my help not making things worse, then I will never help anybody. The third test is that we can learn the semantic truth from examples - I can describe how my help has made things worse. But the syntactic truth is tautological, we can't show it and it must have always been inside of us - there is no way to show that we "should" help others. Finally, on any subject, such as helping others, we can consider four questions: whether, what, how and why, and the syntactic truth always asks the broader question. What help do we give - we don't make things worse. But why do we help - because we should. I have found these four tests to agree. We can think them of them as looking at the game from within it and beyond it, entering it and leaving it.

In basketball, this means that you should not cheat, but play fair. In linguistics, it means that different factors can redeem a sentence or make it unacceptable, including our greater or lesser processing power, the abundance or lack of relevant context, syntactic flexibility or violations, and inspiring or confusing stylistic emphases.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 11:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 321-322 eilutės iš
į:
There are innovation games which ground our meaning in the bigger picture. Bodystorming has us physically feel the implications of our ideas. History Map has us appreciate our corporate culture as a basis for agreement. Plus Delta has us incrementally improve by acknowledging what is good and what could be better. Design the Box has us invert our perspective by considering the customer's point of view.
Pakeistos 329-330 eilutės iš
Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life changes when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. We thus ground our life in that which is beyond it. I suppose that then we are born again, and we can dare to live life by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.
į:
These four games are dialectics which help us distinguish between the conditional truth of the game and the unconditional truth beyond it. For example, there was a time when I felt riled in my encounters with the homeless, when they asked me for money, and I felt that I was in a game that was wrong. I believed that my help could make things worse. But then I realized that there was another truth, that if somebody asked for help or needed help, then I should help. I came up with four tests which distinguished the conditional truth of the game from the unconditional truth of the world. The first test was that I was feeling riled and so I was thinking wrong, I had confused the two truths. If I was thinking right, then I would feel calm. The second test is that the unconditional truth leads to the conditional truth, but not the other way around. If I try to help, then I won't want to make things worse, but if I focus on my help not making things worse, then I will never help anybody. The third test is that we can learn the conditional truth from examples - I can describe how my help has made things worse. But the unconditional truth is tautological, we can't show it and it must have always been inside of us - there is no way to show that we "should" help others. Finally, on any subject, such as helping others, we can consider four questions: whether, what, how and why, and the unconditional truth always asks the broader question. What help do we give - we don't make things worse. But why do we help - because we should. I have found these four tests to agree. We can think them of them as looking at the game from within it and beyond it, entering it and leaving it.

In basketball, this means that you should not cheat, but play fair. In linguistics, it means that different factors can redeem a sentence or make it unacceptable, including our greater or lesser processing power, the abundance or lack of relevant context, syntactic flexibility or violations, and inspiring or confusing stylistic emphases
.
Pridėtos 338-339 eilutės:

Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life changes when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. We thus ground our life in that which is beyond it. I suppose that then we are born again, and we can dare to live life by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:41 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 280 eilutė iš:
In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, what you don't know, and you leave the game by accepting an answer, what you come to know. This his how we relate our conscious not knowing and our unconscious knowing. We we establish a shared world, create meaning within it and then bring it out with us.
į:
In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, what you don't know, and you leave the game by accepting an answer, what you come to know. This his how we relate our conscious not knowing and our unconscious knowing. We establish a shared world, create meaning within it and then bring it out with us.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:38 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 304-305 eilutės iš
What makes the creative process very powerful is that there can be games within games. Or more precisely there are games which make room for such games. For example, there can be a lunch break, which lets us relax and can inspire our creativity.
į:
What makes the creative process very powerful is that there can be games within games. Or more precisely there are games which make room for such games. For example, there can be a lunch break, which lets us relax and can inspire our creativity.
Pakeistos 312-314 eilutės iš
į:
In this way, there can be words within words, or sentences within sentences. We start to realize that everything is a game, subject to the same grammar. Our culture is the game of all games.
Pridėta 322 eilutė:
Pridėtos 326-339 eilutės:

-------------

Indeed, we can think of our life as a game, where we ask, What is the meaning of life? or simply, Why are we here? And our life changes when we know ourselves, our reason why we do what we should do, our deepest value, which includes all of our other values. We thus ground our life in that which is beyond it. I suppose that then we are born again, and we can dare to live life by asking questions, by focusing on what we don't know, but would like to discover.

-------------

Attach:L38.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L39.png
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 308-324 eilutės iš
Attach:L35.png
į:
Attach:L35.png

-------------


-------------

Attach:L36.png

-------------


-------------

Attach:L37.png

-------------
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:26 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 296-297 eilutės iš
Similarly, every word is a game. A new word, "Brno", makes me wonder, What is Brno? I need to learn from somebody, "This is Brno." But the real meaning of Brno for me will be some personal impression that I distill.
į:
Similarly, every word is a game. A new word, "Brno", makes me wonder, What is Brno? I need to learn from somebody, "This is Brno." But the true meaning of Brno for me will be some personal impression that I distill, which is the point of that game.
Pridėtos 303-304 eilutės:

What makes the creative process very powerful is that there can be games within games. Or more precisely there are games which make room for such games. For example, there can be a lunch break, which lets us relax and can inspire our creativity.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:22 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 296 eilutė iš:
Similarly, every word is a game. A new word, "Brno", makes me wonder, What is Brno? I need to learn from somebody, "This is Brno."
į:
Similarly, every word is a game. A new word, "Brno", makes me wonder, What is Brno? I need to learn from somebody, "This is Brno." But the real meaning of Brno for me will be some personal impression that I distill.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:19 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 295-296 eilutės:

Similarly, every word is a game. A new word, "Brno", makes me wonder, What is Brno? I need to learn from somebody, "This is Brno."
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 10:14 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 262-263 eilutės iš
Every game thus has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. There are innovation games which start the creative process by asking questions. The question opens up our thinking and allows it to diverge. Then there follow games which explore various angles and seek for a new idea to emerge. Finally, there are games that have us converge upon an answer. This accords with the learning cycle of proposing an idea, trying it out and evaluating it. Such a cycle leads to increasing clarity. And it can be repeated over and over again. We can return to the same question or consider a new question. We can string together different games if every one of them has a clear beginning and a clear end. In a similar way, we can concatenate sounds, syllables, words, clauses or sentences.
į:
Every game thus has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. There are innovation games which start the creative process by asking questions. The question opens up our thinking and allows it to diverge. Then there follow games which explore various angles and seek for a new idea to emerge. Finally, there are games that have us converge upon an answer. In linguistics, we similarly distinguish between nouns, verbs and evaluatives.

The three phases accord
with the learning cycle of proposing an idea, trying it out and evaluating it. Such a cycle leads to increasing clarity. And it can be repeated over and over again. We can return to the same question or consider a new question. We can string together different games if every one of them has a clear beginning and a clear end. In a similar way, we can concatenate sounds, syllables, words, clauses or sentences.
Pridėtos 287-288 eilutės:

It makes sense to think of every sentence as a game. The question is given by the subject or topic. The answer is given by the predicate or comment. It is thus troubling to hear a subject without a predicate, unless that subject is the reply to a question. Whereas a predicate can stand on its own, with the subject implied.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:56 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 278 eilutė iš:
In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, what you don't know, and you leave the game by accepting an answer, what you come to know. This is how we establish a shared world, create meaning within it and bring it out with us.
į:
In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, what you don't know, and you leave the game by accepting an answer, what you come to know. This his how we relate our conscious not knowing and our unconscious knowing. We we establish a shared world, create meaning within it and then bring it out with us.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 278 eilutė iš:
In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, and you leave the game by accepting an answer. This is how we establish a shared world, create meaning within it and bring it out with us.
į:
In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, what you don't know, and you leave the game by accepting an answer, what you come to know. This is how we establish a shared world, create meaning within it and bring it out with us.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 277-278 eilutės:

In general, if you enter a game, then you should leave the game. You enter a game by asking a question, and you leave the game by accepting an answer. This is how we establish a shared world, create meaning within it and bring it out with us.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:52 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 269-270 eilutės:

Once upon a time, I was wondering whether it made sense for me to finish my Ph.D. studies. My mother advised me, "You want to be a person who starts what he finishes". And this general principle is known as the House Rules. If you open it, close it. If you turn it on, turn it off.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:49 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 262 eilutė iš:
Every game thus has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. There are innovation games which start the creative process by asking questions. The question opens up our thinking and allows it to diverge. Then there follow games which explore various angles and seek for a new idea to emerge. Finally, there are games that have us converge upon an answer.
į:
Every game thus has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. There are innovation games which start the creative process by asking questions. The question opens up our thinking and allows it to diverge. Then there follow games which explore various angles and seek for a new idea to emerge. Finally, there are games that have us converge upon an answer. This accords with the learning cycle of proposing an idea, trying it out and evaluating it. Such a cycle leads to increasing clarity. And it can be repeated over and over again. We can return to the same question or consider a new question. We can string together different games if every one of them has a clear beginning and a clear end. In a similar way, we can concatenate sounds, syllables, words, clauses or sentences.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 253-254 eilutės iš
Every game has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. The
į:
In terms of the big picture, we enter a game with a question, we play the game, and then we leave the game with an answer. The question is the reason Why we play the game, and the answer is What is the outcome of the game. In a basketball game, the question may be, Who will win? and the answer is whoever won. Within the game, we focus on How to play it. Of course, we could shoot baskets without keeping score and simply end our play when it is time to go home. So long as we create a shared world which we enter and then leave, we can call it a game. The question could be, How could we kill some time? and the answer could be, That was kind of fun.
Pridėtos 260-262 eilutės:


Every game thus has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. There are innovation games which start the creative process by asking questions. The question opens up our thinking and allows it to diverge. Then there follow games which explore various angles and seek for a new idea to emerge. Finally, there are games that have us converge upon an answer.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 09:20 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 257-258 eilutės iš
Attach:L29.jpg
į:
Attach:L29.png
Pakeista 263 eilutė iš:
Attach:L30.png
į:
Attach:L30.jpg
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:55 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 253 eilutė iš:
į:
Every game has three phases. In chess, they are called the opening, middle game and endgame. The
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 245 eilutė iš:
At the heart of the innovation process are the games that distill the essence of the deliverable. Such games include "Draw the Problem" where we illustrate a problem in a way that would make us care. In a basketball game, the essence might be the final score but it might also be a defining moment. The goal of coming up with a deliverable induces the familiar grammatical distinction between subject, object and verb. A participant is a subject, and their activity is a verb, but the deliverable is an object. This suggests that the object is the whole point of talking. And it shows the importance of the passive voice in that it converts the participant into the deliverable, which is to say, they become important and we empathize with them. The claim is that "me" demands empathy and "I" does not.
į:
At the heart of the innovation process are the games that distill the essence of the deliverable. Such games include "Draw the Problem" where we illustrate a problem in a way that would make us care. In a basketball game, the essence might be the final score but it might also be a defining moment. The goal of coming up with a deliverable induces the familiar grammatical distinction between subject, object and verb. A participant is a subject, and their activity is a verb, but the deliverable is an object. This suggests that the object is the whole point of talking. And it shows the importance of the passive voice in that it converts the participant into the deliverable, which is to say, the participant becomes important and we empathize with them. The claim is that "me" demands empathy and "I" does not.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:45 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 245-246 eilutės:
At the heart of the innovation process are the games that distill the essence of the deliverable. Such games include "Draw the Problem" where we illustrate a problem in a way that would make us care. In a basketball game, the essence might be the final score but it might also be a defining moment. The goal of coming up with a deliverable induces the familiar grammatical distinction between subject, object and verb. A participant is a subject, and their activity is a verb, but the deliverable is an object. This suggests that the object is the whole point of talking. And it shows the importance of the passive voice in that it converts the participant into the deliverable, which is to say, they become important and we empathize with them. The claim is that "me" demands empathy and "I" does not.
Pridėtos 252-253 eilutės:
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:14 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 237 eilutė iš:
I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for gaining consent. But we can also think of it as calling out the name of a game and commanding it into being. A game can be initiated without words, simply showing up at a basketball court with a basketball, ready to play. In linguistics, we can open our mouth to say a word, clear our throat before we start a sentence, or say a self standing phrase like "Hello."
į:
I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for gaining consent. But we can also think of it as calling out the name of a game and commanding it into being. A game can be initiated without words, simply showing up at a basketball court with a basketball, ready to play. In linguistics, we can open our mouth to say a word, clear our throat before we start a sentence, or say an introductory phrase like "Hello."
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:13 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 237 eilutė iš:
I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for gaining consent. But we can also think of it as calling out the name of a game and commanding it into being. This could be done without words, simply showing up at a basketball court with a basketball, ready to play.
į:
I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for gaining consent. But we can also think of it as calling out the name of a game and commanding it into being. A game can be initiated without words, simply showing up at a basketball court with a basketball, ready to play. In linguistics, we can open our mouth to say a word, clear our throat before we start a sentence, or say a self standing phrase like "Hello."
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:10 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 237 eilutė iš:
I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for
į:
I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for gaining consent. But we can also think of it as calling out the name of a game and commanding it into being. This could be done without words, simply showing up at a basketball court with a basketball, ready to play.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 08:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 236-237 eilutės:

I will start by talking about a quick innovation game, the Pie Chart Agenda, which is used at the beginning of meetings. The participants agree on how to organize the agenda for a meeting by drawing it visually as a pie chart which shows what items will be considered and proportionately how much time will be given to them. We can say this is a game for initiating a larger game, for
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 07:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 251 eilutė iš:
Attach:L29.png
į:
Attach:L29.jpg
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 07:31 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 233-234 eilutės iš
Attach:L30.png
į:
Attach:L26.png
Pakeistos 239-240 eilutės iš
Attach:G19.png
į:
Attach:L27.png
Ištrintos 242-243 eilutės:
Attach:G20.png
Pakeistos 245-246 eilutės iš
Attach:G22.png
į:
Attach:L28.png
Ištrintos 248-249 eilutės:
Attach:G23.png
Pakeistos 251-252 eilutės iš
Attach:G24.png
į:
Attach:L29.png
Ištrintos 254-255 eilutės:
Attach:G25.png
Pakeistos 257-258 eilutės iš
Attach:G26.png
į:
Attach:L30.png
Ištrintos 260-261 eilutės:
Attach:G27.png
Pakeistos 263-287 eilutės iš
Attach:G99.png
į:
Attach:L31.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L32.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L33.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L34.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L35
.png
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 07:22 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 229 eilutė iš:
First, there are games for initiating a game. There are also games which let us start a game within a game. There are games which express the essence of a game.
į:
First, there are games for initiating a game. There are also games which let us start a game within a game. There are games which identify the meaning of a game. There are three kinds of games for a learning cycle by which we clarify that meaning. There are four kinds of games for grounding that meaning in the real world on four different levels. There are six kinds of games which make sense of that meaning by making sure those four levels are distinct. There are four kinds of games for progressively entering into the game and honoring its purpose. And there are four kinds of games for progressively leaving the game and honoring its outcome. Thus there are 24 games in all within every full fledged game.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 07:08 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 227-229 eilutės iš
But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation framework for games within that game. I saw that I could organize the games into 24 groups based on their purposes. The resulting structure is one that I had recognized earlier in studying the ways of figuring things out.
į:
But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation framework for games within that game. I saw that I could organize the games into 24 groups based on their purposes. The resulting structure is one that I had recognized earlier in studying the ways of figuring things out.

First, there are games for initiating a game. There are also games which let us start a game within a game. There are games which express the essence of a game
.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 07:04 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 227-259 eilutės iš
But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation framework for games within that game. I saw that I could organize the games into 24 groups based on their purposes. The resulting structure is one that I had recognized earlier in studying the ways of figuring things out. I will briefly show why I am familiar with this structure and then I will show how it relates to games and what it means for linguistics.

-------------

Attach:L26.png

-------------

In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with a tightly structured system of 24 ways. For now, I will just mention two of the most basic ways. On the one hand, we can isolate what is more important than anything else. On the other hand, we can be open to absolutely everything, no matter how peripheral.

-------------

Attach:L27.png

-------------

I will also mention how I systematized the ways of figuring things out in mathematics. On the surface, math is endless, but if we consider the ways we solve math problems, then our minds are quite limited. For example, consider Euclid's problem of how to construct an equilateral triangle given one of its sides. That is, given two corners of an equilateral triangle, how do we find where the third corner should be? The solution is to draw two circles and to see where they intersect. This is because each circle is a condition of where the desired point needs to be. The point needs to satisfy both conditions. And so our minds convert the surface problem - a geometry problem - into an underlying problem - a lattice of conditions. And such a lattice is a math structure that we use in our minds.

-------------

Attach:L28.png

-------------

I analyzed about 200 problems and discovered and systematized 24 such math structures. They reveal the same system and I think that if we analyze any discipline, we will find the same ways of figuring things out, what I propose is the Universal Grammar.

-------------

Attach:L29.png

-------------

Finally, before I discuss the grammar of games, I want to mention an exercise of the imagination which gives rise to the major structural components. Namely, imagine God's point of view, what might motivate God, one who is prior to all things, to logic, being, meaning and so on? The only thing I can imagine is God asking himself the question, Is God necessary? Would God be even if God was not? We could say that this is the game that God plays. And so I imagine a proof by contradiction, where God makes the least likely conditions for his existence, namely us. But being God, he must indeed arise even so. But then how do they know they are the same God? It is because they understand the same thing. And so we have God who understands, God who comes to understand, and God who is understood. But this is from the point of view of God who understands, who declares "I am God", who initiates this game. What does it look like for the God who arose in the game, who declares "You are God"? Well, it looks like God went beyond himself into the game, so that the game expanded from nothing to something to anything to everything, and likewise, God inside the game goes outside of it. I can say briefly that we are dealing with the two representations of the Foursome, very much like the eight lines of Jesus's prayer "Our Father". And what does this relationship look like from the side, from the point of view that lens which equates God beyond the game and the Godlet within the game, for whom "That is God"? Well, there are four scopes where God beyond the game and God within the game can meet, and there are six gaps when they don't. And that's basically the structure of the Ten Commandments, four positive commandments to love God, and six negative commandments to love your neighbor as yourself. Finally, these three points of view are linked together in every three-cycle by which we take a stand, follow through and reflect, thereby relating the unity of God, the unity of an individual, and the unity of a community. I share this thinking to give a sense of the metaphysical abstraction that very well should be grounding the cognitive frameworks that make us human.
į:
But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation framework for games within that game. I saw that I could organize the games into 24 groups based on their purposes. The resulting structure is one that I had recognized earlier in studying the ways of figuring things out.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:59 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 99 eilutė iš:
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit. In this tiny world we have the freedom to adjust parameters, that is, to prefer certain values, attitudes, dispositions, options, perspectives, which then shape all of the unconscious decisions, responses and scripts that we follow in the world of symbols, indices and icons which we are immersed in.
į:
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit. In this tiny world we have the freedom to adjust parameters, that is, to prefer certain values, attitudes, dispositions, options, perspectives, which then influence all of the unconscious decisions, responses and scripts that we follow in the world of symbols, indices and icons which we are immersed in.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:58 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 91 eilutė iš:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
į:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these twelve circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:57 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 75 eilutė iš:
I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities. Thus when we become conscious of the issue of existence, then our state of mind is defined by the issue of decision making.
į:
I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into it, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities. Thus when we become conscious of the issue of existence, then our state of mind is defined by the issue of decision making.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:53 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 55 eilutė iš:
I have systematically catalogued such highly abstract cognitive frameworks which structure the options for our imagination. Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which the questions of our conscious mind can be matched by the answers of unconscious mind.
į:
I have systematically catalogued such highly abstract cognitive frameworks which structure the options for our imagination. Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which the questions of our conscious mind can be matched by the answers of our unconscious mind.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:53 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 45 eilutė iš:
Similarly, questions of participation require three points of view: a cycle of taking a stand, following through, and reflecting. Such a cycle is the basis for the scientific method: having a hypothesis, conducting an experiment, and intepreting the results.
į:
Similarly, questions of participation require three points of view: a cycle of taking a stand, following through, and reflecting. Such a cycle is the basis for the scientific method: having a hypothesis, conducting an experiment, and intepreting the results. In linguistics, this distinction between being, doing and thinking is relevant in characterizing nouns, verbs and evaluatives.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 3 eilutė iš:
Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-26, 2017.
į:
Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-25, 2017.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 2-3 eilutės:

Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-26, 2017.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 06:45 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrintos 1-331 eilutės:

Think through:
* Note relationship between recurring activity (what we care about - argumentation) and creating meaning (a game - verbalization). In what sense is creating meaning is a one-time activity and in what sense does it become a recurring activity?
* Compare games with mathematical structures. For example, game concatenation looks like group element composition. But how does a game become a symbol or operation? Is there a relationship between games just because one follows the other?
* Look for sequences, hierarchies and networks in game.

>>bgcolor=#FFFFC0<<

To do...
* Listen to videos about the origins of language.

Kaip ima reikšti - nagrinėti skirtinguose lygmenyse - žodyje, frazėje, sakinyje, pastraipoje, rašinyje.

Tirti kalbą ir jos raidą apskritai:
* Childrens' development of language skills.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sign_language | Sign language]]
* Basic language for fluency.
* Dreams - and our use of language in them - and how the unconscious communicates with us.
* Music - [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_theory | Music theory]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_psychology | Music psychology]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_musicology | Cognitive musicology]].
* Kalba kuria mąstome mintyse. Ir kaip mąstome lygiagrečiai besiklausydami kito.
Kalbos kilmė
* Bendras tikslas - joint intentionality
* Overview the many theories on the origins of language - they may all be partly true and supportive.
* Improvisational acting - children's play - constructing imagination
* Gamestorming
* [[https://cogsci.stackexchange.com | Unconscious synchronized movement]] [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162643/#pone.0107538-Wiltermuth1 | article]], [[https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-4473-8_17 | article]]
Tirti paprastą semantinę kalbą:
* Language of gestures.
* Microlanguages... industry, military, warehousing - shipping boxes, traffic signs
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_ape_language | Great ape language]]
Tirti semantiką
* Kaip sukuriame mintį ir kaip pagauname mintį.
* Most common words in Chinese, English, Lithuanian and other languages.
* Kokia mintis glūdi paskirame žodyje.
* Lietuvos Respublikos įstatymų vartojamų sąvokų žodynas.
Tirti sintaksės atsiradimą:
* Visual language: icon, symbol, structure
* Chinese radicals.
* Coding - programming languages - syntax and semantics
* Memory aids - tai ką žinome tampa kuo nežinome
Tirti sintaksę
* [[https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_syntactic_phenomena | Syntactic phenomena]]
* What is known about universals of language.
* Kalbos nerišlumo įvairovę ir priežastis.
* Distinguish Chinese as a minimally syntactic language, English as a highly syntactic language (in terms of external structure) and Lithuanian as a highly syntactic language (in terms of morphology). To what extent is there syntax in Chinese?
* Apžvelgti [[http://www.languagesgulper.com/eng/Lithuanian.html | lietuvių kalbos gramatiką]].
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Notably, the types of agreement. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese, especially for second language learners. Nemaloniausios klaidos.
* Constraints on word formation, notably in Lithuanian, on what kinds of endings can be use, what kinds of accent patterns are used, etc. (compare to music) And phonetic constraints - use of tones, distinction of vowels and consonants, annunciation (compare to singing).
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_typology | Linguistic typology]] and also [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_contact | Language contact]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contrastive_analysis | Contrastive analysis]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_linguistics | Comparative linguistics]] - what are the dimensions considered?
* [[Mintys/ŽodžiųDaryba | Žodžių daryba]]. Options for word creation, especially in Lithuanian.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics | Robotics]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory | Control theory]] - relating recurring activities.
* How the brain deals with recurring activities and "robotics".
Atmintis
* Relate to memory in the broadest sense, what can be retrieved from the unconscious, from language, from the world.

Questions:
* Analyze how meaning is created on different levels - in the creation of words - in the unfolding of a sentence - in the unfolding of a paragraph - in the unfolding of a longer text. Analyze the meaning in a folk tale. Find other corpuses, for example, dialogue. Analyze a Shakespeare play.
* Compare my divisions of joint intention with the findings from our workshop on language. How do the cognitive divisions relate to the communicative divisions?
* Analyze and organize the various ways that words are created in Lithuanian.
* Are there people who don't think in words? Example: people who don't talk to people in their minds.
* Why do some aspects of the understanding of grammar change in a person's life but others do not?
* Žmonės (ir šimpanzės, nekaip orangutangai) turi apie ką kalbėti... apie ką? apie gamtą? jausmus? žmonių santykius?
* Does syntax exist in dreams? What is the relationship between conscious and unconscious minds in dreams?

>><<

[+Main ideas+]

Main ideas:
* Focus on what we can learn from recurring activities.
* Language works by reducing vagueness.
* Language serves us externally in coordinating actions.
* Language serves us internally as mirroring our actions.
* Language implements a duality which balances a community's words and an individual's meanings.
* Activity is the "thing" that we are representing with icons, indexes and symbols.
* Ambiguity is supported, developed and utilized in coordinating the activity, especially by silence. Dialectical ambiguity - truths of heart and world.
* Human language requires supporting two streams of thought at one time - listening to another and listening to ourselves (dialectics) - thus we are able to come up with questions - apes are only able to answer questions.


Conceptual language
* Įvardijimo laipsnyne (linksniuose) ieškome valios - bandome ją sukurti, tai gramatikos požiūris siejantis sintaksę ir semantiką. O pasakojimas kuria sintaksės požiūrį (asmenį, veikėją, židinį) ir rūpėjimas kuria semantikos požiūrį (reikalą).
* Linguistic epistemology: simplicity, generality and according with the facts.


[+Kalbos ypatumai+]

* Žmogus mąsto žodžiais ir sakiniais nes jisai mąsto ko tyliau, ko ramiau ir tai yra ko mažiau "triukšmingas" mąstymas. Panašiai su jauduliais, gyvename ko mažiau jaudulingais jauduliais. Užtat labai lengva klaidingai suprasti jausmų ar minčių teoriją jeigu kreipiame dėmesį į triukšmingiausius, kraštutinius reiškinius.
* Vaikų ausimis suprasti kalbą - kaip susigaudyti, kaip sulaukti paaiškinimo. Galimybė klausti klausimus. Žodį gali pakartoti. Užtat paklausti. Creole kalbos: jidiš, anglų.
* Kalba tveria reikšmę.
* Kalba sieja du požiūrius: klausiančios, nežinančios sąmonės ir atsakančios, žinančios pasąmonės.
* Sąmonė mąsto medžiu, sintakse. Pasąmonė mąsto tinklu, semantika. Jųdviejų mąstymą seka sieja gramatika.
* Sintaksė skaido reikšmės vienetą, sakinį, į tai kas turi reikšmę (veiksnys, tema, reikalas, substancija) ir priskiriamą, išsakomą reikšmę (tarinys, aptarimas). Žodis gali turėti reikšmę.
* Semantika suveda reikšmės vienetą, žodį. O ta mintis, ta reikšmė išsakoma gyvenimiškai, pragmatiškai, aplinkybėse: tai yra stalas, "stalas" reiškia va tai, vadiname "stalu" ir panašiai. Vadinas, žodis, kaip toks, neturi išsakytos reikšmės, bet reikšmė kaip tokia išsakoma tiktai paaiškinimu.
* Semantika remiasi pragmatiniu santykiu, kaip kiekvienu atveju tiesiog paprasčiausia, kaip optimalu. O sintaksė remiasi aiškiomis taisyklėmis, ir nesprendžia paskiro atvejo, o sprendžia bendrai.
* Yra įmanoma kalbėti visai be sintaksės, tiesiog pabirais žodžiais, pasiremiant aplinkybėmis. Tai vadinama "tiesine gramatika".
* Sintaksė leidžia suvokti, kad kuris nors žodis nepasakytas, praleistas, ar tiesiog reikšmę papildo nepasakytas bet iš sintaksės suprastas žodis. Tokiais žodžiais gali būti, pavyzdžiui, asmenis reiškiantys įvardžiai arba praleisti artikulai.
* Kalba remiasi atmintimi. O atmintis lengvai įsimena būtent tai, kam priskiriama laisva vieta smegenyse. Vadinasi, kai kuriems reiškiniams gyvenime smegenys yra paruošę laisvų plotų, užtat juo galima įsiminti net pirmu pažinimu. Ir būtent įsimename ir išgyvename ne pačius reiškinius, o tuos laisvus plotus, kad išgyvenome "kažką tokio", kad ir visai migloto ar net iš karto neįsidėmėtino. Užtat gali būti labai reikšmingi ir visam gyvenimui įsimintini kažkokie neaiškūs atsitikimai, susižvalgymai, pastebėjimai ir t.t. nes būtent tai tiko kuriam nors laisvam, paruoštam plotui. Ir tokiais išgyvenimais pažįstame tą plotą ir būtent jį įsimename ir juomi savaip atkuriame tuos reiškinius, gal visai neprimenančius tikrovę.
* Tad kalbose įprasta, kad svarbūs, dažnūs, anksti išmokstami reiškiniai gali būti visai nedėsningi, tuo tarpu, retesni reiškiniai būtinai yra dėsningi.
* Kiekviena kalba reikalauja laikytis kažkokio sunkiai pateisinamo tačiau viską siejančio dėsningumo. Priklausomai nuo kalbos, tai gali būti žodžio giminė; linksniai; daiktvardžių bei veiksmažodžių sąryšiai (semantika tampa nebe pragmatinis reikalas, o vos ne gramatinis reikalas); anglų kalboje - daiktavardžių apibrėžtumas ir neapibrėžtumas; kinų kalboje - "measure words".
* Aplinkybės (prielinksniai) dalykiškai išplečia tai, ko nežinome.
* Proto laukai - Fauconnier.
* The mystery of language - native speakers are able to follow language rules without consciously being aware of them.
* Algebra of copyright - multiple parsers.

Purposes of language
* Language peculiarities (like irregular verbs) can distinguish whether people are insiders or outsiders of a society.
* Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change. diplomats say vagueness is an asset
* Politics let us live in larger groups - and the social networking co-evolved with the increase in the sign of our neocortex.
* The use of words (imitations) as symbols (substitutes,of meaning, of feeling, gifts) is a turning point.
Singing in unison
* Do apes sing in unison? Apes don't seem to sing in unison.
* Singing identical twins.
* J-FOL: Baldwin effect - in evolution - relate to singing.
* Music affects the emotions by playing with the boundary between self and world. It distinguishes between the voice we identify with the self and the voice we identify with the world.
* Expressing feelings is important for joint feelings - joint expectations. Acting out feelings and symbolic substitution. Ambiguity of "I" and "we".
* Use of sound symbolically in not-situated specific fashion.
* Alan Fiske "Structures of Social Life" 4 kinds of distribution (of goods)
Synchronized behavior
* Bullowa, M. (1975). When infant and adult communicate, how do they synchronize their behaviors. Organization of behavior in face-to-face interaction, 95-127.
* Dievas - "Spirit of understanding" - joint intentionality. Activity of learning. (Visuose padalinimuose iškyla).

Origins of language
* Imitation - of people, animals, etc. Consider the usefulness of mimicking individuals. This is important for politics - "the political animal" (Aristotles) - for identifying and punishing cheaters, or rewarding assistantss, for establishing group unity. The intentionality foursome would support this.
* Interjections and exclamations.
*



Bringing together unconscious (semantics) and conscious (syntax) with shared grammar.
* System 1 - the unconscious - uses linear grammar, and System 2 - the conscious - uses nonlinear grammar. Joint intentionality brings the two together so that we can think in two threads at one time - or an ambiguity of semantics and syntax.
* Purely syntactic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to meaning. And purely semantic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to syntax.
* Pasąmonė yra boundaries, o sąmonė cycle. Primena ryšį tarp sintaksės ir semantikos. Kohomologija yra pragmatika.
* So the brain develops in parallel an internal model of sensual capacity and an external model of the real world.
* Sintaksė yra laisvė, laisva valia - semantika likimas.
* Group mind - pasąmonė - be sintaksės. Paskiras žmogus, šviesuolis - sintaksė.
* Xunzi apie ritualus, papročius. Niekas nenuspės, kas prigis, paplis, pasiseks. Tam reikia mąstyti, kaip vidutinybė, kaip visuomenės pasąmonė. O niekas nėra toks bukas.
* Reducing vagueness is a syntactic issue. Concreteness is semantic.
* Požiūris į požiūrį į požiūrį: Lygmenis išsako: Sintaksė - pavidalas (pasakojimas, įvykis, įsimintinumas, kaip veikėjas bręsta - atsitokėjimas atvaizdu), gramatika - susitarimas (įvardijimas, reikšmė), semantika - turinys (pagrindimas, rūpėjimas, prasmė, įsijautimas-aplinkybė).
* Database design mentality: half of the time on general rules, half the time on exceptions.
* Rules - softwired is conscious - hardwired is unconscious.
* Separating terms: rules (instructions) and data - hemispheres. Ketverybė. Syntax lets instructions be considered as data (and vice versa).
* Distinguish an item from a category - there is syntactic/semantic ambiguity.
* Jackendoff. Foundations of Language: J-FOL: Levelt 1999 "Syntax is the poor man's semantics."
* Septynerybė sulygina visuomenės žodžius ir asmeninius turinius, nesuteikia pirmenybę vienai ar kitai.
Grammar
* Grammar arises with restraints on word formation. Joint intentionality meant grammatical norms, a sense of what is grammatically correct.
* J-FOL: Syntax is the conscious mind's top down structuring. Semantics is the bottom-up reasoning. Linear grammar. Syntax characterizes and organizes abstract concepts. It steps out. So language (and grammar) is the interaction of both.
* J-FOL: Distinguish syntax (from above) and grammar (where it meets with semantics).
* Jackendorf: Word as interface rule.
Shared divisions of everything
** Shared grammar (for a shared language) makes joint intentionality cognitvely practical because it allows the divisions of everything to be manifest.
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_Role_Inventories | Belbin Team Inventory]] and other team role inventories.


Memory
* Look at regular and irregular verbs in terms of their word frequency.
* Exceptions come first and rules come later for the less frequent. Maintenance of knowledge by recurrence. It if recurs regularly, then you can remember anything. But if it recurs rarely you need to relate it to a pattern. Multitrack.
* Aglutinancinės kalbos yra reguliarios.
* Skirtingos atmintys - skirtingi santykiai su skirtingomis atmintimis: tikrove, kalba, ... Ar visų žmonių neuronų pasąmonė tampriai susijusi?
Pertvarkymai
* Six restructurings relate the unconscious (primary structure) and the conscious (secondary structure) - what we know (in memory) and what we don't know (our vantage points). Look for these restructurings in language, music, memory, brain, etc.!
* Fonologiją ir sintaksę derina seka
* Sintaksę ir semantiką derina medis
* Semantiką ir fonologiją derina tinklas
* Jackendorf on how we learn semi-productivity. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_(linguistics) | Productivity]].
* J-FOL: Completion of a system - rounding it out - Given the beginnings of a system, how "complete" is it in a phonological sense - fleshing it out - but are such maps imbalanced - do they have holes and why?
* J-FOL: Phonological aesthetic sense.

Jackendoff - Linear Grammar
* Start with what can be said by linking meaning with expression - before phonetics, morphology, syntax. And then see it evolve.
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - mappings between phonology and meaning - linear grammar - word and word order. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin | Pidgins]].
* Transition from pidgin to creole - adding syntactic and morphological principles.
* Klein and Perdue - late second language acquisition - semi-efficiency they call Basic Variety. No inflectional morphology, no sentential subordination, known characters freely ommitted, word order based on semantic roles: Agent before Action. (Ordering by the three-cycle.)
* Home Sign (Goldin-Meadow). Children invent rudimentary morphology. Known characters freely omitted. Object/Action distinction, not Noun/Verb. Word order probabilistic, semantically biased. No embedding. Properties of linear grammar.
* Village Sign Languages. Fairly substantial morphology. Little evidence for syntactic structure. No evidence for sentential embedding. Actor-Action order in 1-character sentences. Unreliable word order in 2- and 3-character sentences with two animate characters. Tendency to omit all but one character. Linear grammar.
* Processing strategies (Townsend & Bever) interpretive strategies - Actor precedes Action
* Good enough parsing - linear order and semantic plausibility.
* Agrammatic aphasics.
* Specific Language Impairment. (Heather van der Lely)
* Riau Indonesian (David Gil) - No syntactic parts of speech. No inflectional morphology. Known characters are freely ommitted. Subordination is expressed by parataxis - jamming sentences together. Free word order but semantic biases such as Actor precedes Action, Actions precede Patients. Makes use of a lot of pragmatics.
* Piraha (Dan Everett) Lots of morphology, a noun-verb distinction. Word order fairly fixed. No definite and indefinite articles, no plural marker, no inflectional morphology. Free omission of known characters. (Lacks recursion - subordinate clauses.)
* Linear grammar and Syntax grammar coexist - and compete? Like the unconscious and the conscious? Single meaning vs. ambiguous meaning.
Great ape language
* Apes can learn many hundreds of words. But they don't use nonlinear grammar. They don't ask questions. Question asking by infants may come in wanting to know what is happening - to have a shared reality - and to ask for reappraisal.


What syntax is
* Syntax makes it possible for a missing space to have meaning. Linear grammar can have a pause - a pregnant pause. But syntax can distinguish between "the cars" and simply "cars". (In this case, definite and indefinite.)
* The brain learns through moving in the real world for that motion manifests syntax and that lets it map and model semantic sensory feeling qu.alia with syntactic knowledge based on activity modes which are the atoms for syntax the possibilities for activiy the structure of the external real world.
* Our ability to rationalize - to recognize patterns - sometimes falsely. Children learn to use irregular words separately (like am and are?) and only later may realize that they are related (?)
* Syntax is about following rules and not breaking them. Whereas there are many other patterns driven by pragmatics and semantics but they are optional and do not reflect rules that must not be broken. So it's important to distinguish between violations of grammar and nonsensical, incoherent or abnormal speaking.
* Syntax lets you talk about things you don't understand.
* Syntax and rules allow labor to be divided. The "black boxes" of the Soviet military.
* Constructive hypothesis: shared structure of form and content of communication act.
* In mathematics, syntax is well-formedness and semantics is that which can be analyzed in terms of its truth or falsehood. Language without syntax is language without any rules. Syntax arises along with rules. And rules are an outgrowth of a joint perspective, a social contract.
* So syntax deal with rules - but there are other constraints as well. Note also that the rules admit of freedom for each worker to do their own job and think their own job in their own way as they are able. Thus there is no shared implementation.
* Algebra (and substitution) lets us solve equations even when we don't know what they mean. So the mathematical methods of proof distinguish between the first three (morphism, induction, algorithm construction) which are semantic in that they require us to know what we mean, and the second three (substitution, examination of cases, construction) which are syntactic in that they don't depend on what is meant.
* So word construction is an essential part of syntax because it manipulates meaning and adds meaning to that which we need not understand.
* Rašymu - bendraujame per laiko atstumą - per erdvės atstumą.
* Galimybe vienu metu mąstyti du srautus - klausytis kito minčių ir turėti savo mintis. Ketverybė, penkerybė, šešerybė derina du srautus. Laikas ir erdvė kalboje.
* Banguoja mintys ir jas lenkiame teigiamai.
* Music as a link between linear grammar and recursive grammar. Music as the enrichment of a linear grammar. Alexanders "echoes". Parallel voices - drumming - overlapping patterns.


Topics in syntax
* Twosome: Subject and predicate
** Distinguishing subject (what we don't know about) and predicate (what we know about it).
** Two speakers separate and unite (with each sentence) in terms of not knowing and knowing.
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic_and_comment | Topic and comment]]
** Japanese and Korean: the topic is normally marked with a postposition such as -wa (は) or 는/은, -(n)eun. (Compare with ma in Chinese).
** Būtent Jonas spyrė kamuolį. Būtent - implies it is a comment, what we know.
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic-prominent_language | Topic-prominent language]].
*** They tend to downplay the role of the passive voice, if a passive construction exists at all.
*** Do not have expletives or "dummy subjects" (pleonastic pronouns) like English it in It's raining.
*** They often have sentences with so-called "double subjects", actually a topic plus a subject. Zhège rén gèzi hěn gāo. "This person (topic) height (subject) tall."
*** They do not have articles (of definiteness), which are another way of indicating old vs. new information.
*** The distinction between subject and object is not reliably marked.
** Programavimo kalboje A=B. Subject (kas keičiasi) ir predicate (kas nesikeičia). Dvejybė.
* Word order.
** Palyginti lietuvių kalba: "Aš vairuoju mašiną", "Mašiną vairuoju aš", ir t.t. ir anglų kalbą "I drive car" ir kinų kalbą.
** Word order in [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Sign_Language#Syntax | American Sign Language]]
* Definite and indefinite articles - compare in English, Chinese, Lithuanian. Note that the same notion is available in all languages but expressed in different ways. And this relates to the nature of their syntax - topicality.
* Conceptual punctuation.
** Hello - bendravimo skyrybos ženklai.
** J-FOL: Sentential adverbials - can be place in front or at the end - "obviously" - "Thank you" - "You're welcome."
* Conceptual types
** Jackendoff conceptual types: Situation, Event, States, Object, Place, Property
* Repetition
** Qi zixingch qide hen kuai. Kartoja mintį, tai linear grammar. O čia "de" ir "hen" yra sintaksės elementai. "Local syntax". "Bottom-up syntax."
* Questions - įtampos balsai
** Kalbai svarbūs įtampos balsai: Liepimas, aiškinimas, klausymas.
* Categorization
** Language gender and other agreements come from "categorization" (as noted by Levi-Strauss) and for the sake of reducing vagueness.
** Japanese has a complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, and persons mentioned.
** J-FOL: Gender: for example, individual words - syntactic aspect of a word.
** J-FOL: Lithuanian-Spanish gender, English definite-indefinite, Chinese measure words - are syntactic activities that impose syntactic mindfulness.
* Tyla
** Tyla (nulybė) palaiko daugiaprasmybę.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | Parts of speech]]
** nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles. Articles are sometimes considered determiners, and determiners are sometimes considered adjectives.
* Veiksmažodžių nuosakos
** Nuosakos yra kaip pokalbės, atskiros kalbos: praeičiai, dabarčiai, ateičiai.
* Eilėraščiai
** Kalbėjimas yra kaip eilėraščių kūrimas, žodžių derinimas.
* Dviprasmybės
** "Do" gali reikšti "Ar": Do you want to... nors pagrindinė reikšmė yra "daryti".
** Kiekviena kalba būtinai turi savitas tokias dviprasmybes, kaip Babelio bokšte.
** Yra dviprasmybė tarp "kaip" ir "kodėl" - priežastis santvarkoje ir už santvarkos
** Dviprasmybė tarp prasmės ir reikšmės, taip pat Jėzaus "galėti".

Sintaksės reiškiniai
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphora_(linguistics)|Anaphora]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreement_(linguistics)|Agreement]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antecedent-contained deletion | Antecedent-contained deletion]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_Object_Marking | Differential_Object_Marking]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_case|Case]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitic | Clitics]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_control|Control]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dummy pronoun | Dummy pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_verb | Ergative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existential_clause | Existential clause]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_expletive|Expletives]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_NP_shift | Heavy NP shift]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_copula|Inverse copula sentences]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_paradox | Movement paradox]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_gap | Parasitic gap]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-drop_language|Pro-drop]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising_(linguistics) | Raising]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_(grammar) | Reciprocal]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_pronoun | Reflexive pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verb | Reflexive verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unaccusative_verb | Unaccusative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wh-movement | Wh-movement]]


Basics of Chinese (non-syntactic!) grammar rules ([[https://www.chineseboost.com/grammar/ | Chinese Boost grammar]])
* What precedes modifies what follows. (What is the presumption for word order in linear grammar?)
* Words do not change.
* Chinese is topic-prominent. (Puts the thing the sentence is about first.) English is subject prominent.
* Aspect, not tense. Compare aspects: I will set off to Beijing. I will have set off to Beijing.
* Chinese rules are logical. Chinese tends to only indicate things once in a sentence.

Units
* Phonetically, a word is that which can be surrounded by spaces.
* Sentence is an independent, self-standing unit of syntax. It means that control can be handed over to another speaker.
* A clause expresses a thought and expresses that a moment of the present has elapsed.

Aplinkybės
* Išnagrinėti: žodžiai kaip "under" padeda remtis žodžiais kurių pilnai nesuprantame, ir juos tuo pačiu gerai suprasti.

Word frequency
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Most_common_words_in_English | Most common words in English]]
* [[http://hanzidb.org/character-list/by-frequency | Most common Chinese characters]]
* [[http://donelaitis.vdu.lt/publikacijos/Dazninis_zodynas.pdf | Dažninis lietuvių kalbos žodynas]] ir [[http://donelaitis.vdu.lt/main.php?id=4&nr=2 | duomenys]]

To study
* Saussure - A course in general linguistics.




* Chris Argyris. Organizational defensive routines. Self-sealing logic. Self-fulfilling prophecy.

[+Data+]

Basics of Chinese
* [[http://www.acsu.nl/files/pdf/NewPracticalChinese/practicalchineseT1.pdf | New Practical Chinese Reader]]

Language of gestures
* [[https://www.slideshare.net/melodeepop/38-gestures-of-body-language | 38 gestures]]


------------------------------------
[+Abstract+]

Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-26, 2017.

[+Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?+]

We explore how we can derive various aspects of language by considering its original purpose to be the reduction of vagueness in order to coordinate activity.

Generally, in discourse, there is a remarkable agreement as to which words and sentences are spoken. Traditionally, linguists have supposed that language therefore conveys meaning through assemblies of well defined terms. More broadly, analytic philosophy, and more specifically, cognitive linguistics, have held such an outlook, which we argue is implausible, psychologically, phenomenologically and pragmatically.

Psychologically, the unfolding sense of meaning which we experience only loosely matches the flow of words that we speak and hear. Phenomenologically, speaker and listener are quite disconnected in what they personally feel. Indeed, thinking itself is extremely vague. And, pragmatically, people need not agree on what their terms actually mean, nor know themselves, for that matter.

Cognitive linguistics has reconsidered language in terms of thinking and so has developed an understanding of cognitive frameworks. However, these frameworks are still discussed from the prevailing point of view of assembling items. Thus, Langacker (2008) considers how we may conceptualize a drinking glass as a space, shape, container, instrument, material and so on.
Instead, we suppose that the purpose of language is to coordinate activity. Thus we conceive of a world in which what is well defined are recurring activities. We pick things up and set them down; we drink liquids; we serve them to others. It is the recurring activity which determines what a "drinking glass" might mean for us. For example, we may be told to clean the glasses in the sink but leave the plates. Thus we have an activity of distinguishing glasses from plates. The implementation of such an activity can be particular to any individual. There need be no definition of what a "glass" is, nor what properties it has, but rather there is an activity of selecting glasses, which may lead to an ad hoc concept, or not. Architect Christopher Alexander (1979) has described how recurring activity evokes structure, and structure channels activity, yielding patterns - general "rules of thumb" - which come together in pattern languages. We can apply his thinking to linguistics.

The goal of language then can be to reduce the general vagueness of thinking, by a variety of strategies, for the purpose of coordinating activity, old and new. This is compatible with Tomasello's (2016) concept of joint intentionality. Working together with others, we must leverage general models of intention, attention, and serving the interests of others, for example, by appreciating status, as in who submits to whom. We must punctuate our actions, much as if they were sentences. Some strategies can be most abstract, such as dividing the vagueness of our minds into two perspectives, as when distinguishing construal and content. Other strategies can be familiar to us as transformations of our own self-identity. Thus we overview strategies which help us coordinate activity and we show what they might variously ground to make language possible.

-----------------------
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 01:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 588-589 eilutės iš
Finally, before I discuss the grammar of games, I want to mention an exercise of the imagination which gives rise to the major structural components. Namely, imagine God's point of view, what might motivate God, one who is prior to all things, to logic, being, meaning and so on? The only thing I can imagine is God asking himself the question, Is God necessary? Would God be even if God was not? We could say that this is the game that God plays. And so I imagine a proof by contradiction, where God makes the least likely conditions for his existence, namely us. But being God, he must indeed arise even so. But then how do they know they are the same God? It is because they understand the same thing. And so we have God who understands, God who comes to understand, and God who is understood. But this is from the point of view of God who understands, who declares "I am God", who initiates this game. What does it look like for the God who arose in the game, who declares "You are God"?
į:
Finally, before I discuss the grammar of games, I want to mention an exercise of the imagination which gives rise to the major structural components. Namely, imagine God's point of view, what might motivate God, one who is prior to all things, to logic, being, meaning and so on? The only thing I can imagine is God asking himself the question, Is God necessary? Would God be even if God was not? We could say that this is the game that God plays. And so I imagine a proof by contradiction, where God makes the least likely conditions for his existence, namely us. But being God, he must indeed arise even so. But then how do they know they are the same God? It is because they understand the same thing. And so we have God who understands, God who comes to understand, and God who is understood. But this is from the point of view of God who understands, who declares "I am God", who initiates this game. What does it look like for the God who arose in the game, who declares "You are God"? Well, it looks like God went beyond himself into the game, so that the game expanded from nothing to something to anything to everything, and likewise, God inside the game goes outside of it. I can say briefly that we are dealing with the two representations of the Foursome, very much like the eight lines of Jesus's prayer "Our Father". And what does this relationship look like from the side, from the point of view that lens which equates God beyond the game and the Godlet within the game, for whom "That is God"? Well, there are four scopes where God beyond the game and God within the game can meet, and there are six gaps when they don't. And that's basically the structure of the Ten Commandments, four positive commandments to love God, and six negative commandments to love your neighbor as yourself. Finally, these three points of view are linked together in every three-cycle by which we take a stand, follow through and reflect, thereby relating the unity of God, the unity of an individual, and the unity of a community. I share this thinking to give a sense of the metaphysical abstraction that very well should be grounding the cognitive frameworks that make us human.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 00:47 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 587-589 eilutės:

Finally, before I discuss the grammar of games, I want to mention an exercise of the imagination which gives rise to the major structural components. Namely, imagine God's point of view, what might motivate God, one who is prior to all things, to logic, being, meaning and so on? The only thing I can imagine is God asking himself the question, Is God necessary? Would God be even if God was not? We could say that this is the game that God plays. And so I imagine a proof by contradiction, where God makes the least likely conditions for his existence, namely us. But being God, he must indeed arise even so. But then how do they know they are the same God? It is because they understand the same thing. And so we have God who understands, God who comes to understand, and God who is understood. But this is from the point of view of God who understands, who declares "I am God", who initiates this game. What does it look like for the God who arose in the game, who declares "You are God"?
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 00:23 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 450-451 eilutės iš
What does syntax add to language? I believe that it allows us to construct a system of perspectives which go beyond what we can focus on here and now. It thus radically expands our ability to acknowledge what we don't understand, not just isolated words, but complicated thoughts which may make sense later or which may prove to be contradictory or simply nonsense. I will show how a universal grammar is presumed in playing games. But first I will make our joint intentionality all the more vivid by suggesting a related physical characteristic by which we diverged from other apes.
į:
What does syntax add to language? I believe that it allows us to construct a system of perspectives which go beyond what we can focus on here and now. Syntax thus radically expands our ability to acknowledge what we don't understand, not just isolated words, but complicated thoughts which may make sense later or which may prove to be contradictory or simply nonsense. I will show how a universal grammar is presumed in playing games. But first I will make our joint intentionality all the more vivid by suggesting a related physical characteristic by which we diverged from other apes.
Pakeista 572 eilutė iš:
I will also mention how I systematized the ways of figuring things out in mathematics. On the surface, math is endless, but if we consider the ways we solve math problems, then our minds are quite limited. For example, consider's Euclid's problem of how to construct an equilateral triangle given one of its sides. That is, given two corners of an equilateral triangle, how do we find where the third corner should be? The solution is to draw two circles and to see where they intersect. This is because each circle is a condition of where the desired point needs to be. The point needs to satisfy both conditions. And so our minds convert the surface problem - a geometry problem - into an underlying problem - a lattice of conditions. And such a lattice is a math structure that we use in our minds.
į:
I will also mention how I systematized the ways of figuring things out in mathematics. On the surface, math is endless, but if we consider the ways we solve math problems, then our minds are quite limited. For example, consider Euclid's problem of how to construct an equilateral triangle given one of its sides. That is, given two corners of an equilateral triangle, how do we find where the third corner should be? The solution is to draw two circles and to see where they intersect. This is because each circle is a condition of where the desired point needs to be. The point needs to satisfy both conditions. And so our minds convert the surface problem - a geometry problem - into an underlying problem - a lattice of conditions. And such a lattice is a math structure that we use in our minds.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 00:18 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 572-573 eilutės iš
I will also mention how I systematized the ways of figuring things out in mathematics. I looked for patterns that recur in solving math problems. Euclid
į:
I will also mention how I systematized the ways of figuring things out in mathematics. On the surface, math is endless, but if we consider the ways we solve math problems, then our minds are quite limited. For example, consider's Euclid's problem of how to construct an equilateral triangle given one of its sides. That is, given two corners of an equilateral triangle, how do we find where the third corner should be? The solution is to draw two circles and to see where they intersect. This is because each circle is a condition of where the desired point needs to be. The point needs to satisfy both conditions. And so our minds convert the surface problem - a geometry problem - into an underlying problem - a lattice of conditions. And such a lattice is a math structure that we use in our minds.
Pridėtos 579-580 eilutės:

I analyzed about 200 problems and discovered and systematized 24 such math structures. They reveal the same system and I think that if we analyze any discipline, we will find the same ways of figuring things out, what I propose is the Universal Grammar.
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 00:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 564-565 eilutės iš
In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with a tightly structured system of 24 ways. For now, I will just mention two of the most basic ways. On the one hand, we can isolate what is more important than anything else. On the other hand, we can be open to absolute everything, no matter how peripheral.
į:
In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with a tightly structured system of 24 ways. For now, I will just mention two of the most basic ways. On the one hand, we can isolate what is more important than anything else. On the other hand, we can be open to absolutely everything, no matter how peripheral.
Pridėtos 571-572 eilutės:

I will also mention how I systematized the ways of figuring things out in mathematics. I looked for patterns that recur in solving math problems. Euclid
2017 lapkričio 25 d., 00:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 564 eilutė iš:
In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with a tightly structured system of 24 ways.
į:
In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with a tightly structured system of 24 ways. For now, I will just mention two of the most basic ways. On the one hand, we can isolate what is more important than anything else. On the other hand, we can be open to absolute everything, no matter how peripheral.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 23:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 564 eilutė iš:
In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with
į:
In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with a tightly structured system of 24 ways.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 23:19 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 556-557 eilutės iš
But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation frameworks for games within that game.
į:
But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation framework for games within that game. I saw that I could organize the games into 24 groups based on their purposes. The resulting structure is one that I had recognized earlier in studying the ways of figuring things out. I will briefly show why I am familiar with this structure and then I will show how it relates to games and what it means for linguistics.
Pridėtos 563-564 eilutės:

In my philosophical research, I have used hundreds of ways of figuring things out, and so I documented and systematized them. I came up with
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 23:00 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 548 eilutė iš:
I then took a fresh look to consider what we focus on with these various innovation games. Some of them have us focus on the bigger picture, appealing to the real world. Others have us focus on our fellow participants, getting to know them, respecting them and including them. There are games that have us focus on the games themselves, that is, the rules for the innovation process. And, ultimately, there are games which have us focus on the deliverable, that creative output which is the goal of the creative process, and from the company's point of view, the product or service that it hopes to sell. Thus we can think of the innovation framework as itself being a game, which first has us create the preconditions for creativity, then has us create our deliverable, and finally has us return with that deliverable back into the real world.
į:
I then took a fresh look to consider what we focus on with these various innovation games. Some of them have us focus on the bigger picture, appealing to the real world. Others have us focus on our fellow participants, getting to know them, respecting them and including them. There are games that have us focus on the games themselves, that is, the rules for the innovation process. And, ultimately, there are games which have us focus on the deliverable, that creative output which is the goal of the creative process, and from the company's point of view, the product or service that it hopes to sell. Thus we can think of the innovation framework as itself being a game, which first has us set up the preconditions for creativity, then has us create our deliverable, and finally has us return with that deliverable back into the real world.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:58 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 540-541 eilutės:
In my first attempt to diagram the purposes, I noted how they unfolded. We may start with games for consenting, for caring about each other and the issue, and for understanding the issue. The climax of innovation is when we distill the idea, for example, when we can draw it on the back of a napkin or explain it in an elevator pitch. Often this comes from inverting our point of view, for example, taking up the customer's point of view. After we gain this new perspective, there are games that help us innovate, validate and commit ourselves.
Pridėtos 548-549 eilutės:
I then took a fresh look to consider what we focus on with these various innovation games. Some of them have us focus on the bigger picture, appealing to the real world. Others have us focus on our fellow participants, getting to know them, respecting them and including them. There are games that have us focus on the games themselves, that is, the rules for the innovation process. And, ultimately, there are games which have us focus on the deliverable, that creative output which is the goal of the creative process, and from the company's point of view, the product or service that it hopes to sell. Thus we can think of the innovation framework as itself being a game, which first has us create the preconditions for creativity, then has us create our deliverable, and finally has us return with that deliverable back into the real world.
Pridėtos 555-556 eilutės:

But this suggests, vice versa, that every game may potentially be considered as an innovation frameworks for games within that game.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:31 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 532 eilutė iš:
Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo are consultants who wrote a book called Gamestorming and have a related website. They have collected about 100 innovation games played in Silicon Valley to help corporate teams function creatively. Different games serve different purposes and I became interested in how those purposes might come together as a framework for innovation, or more broadly, the ways of figuring things out.
į:
Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo are consultants who wrote a book called Gamestorming and have a related website. They have collected about 100 innovation games played in Silicon Valley to help corporate teams function creatively. Different games serve different purposes and I became interested in how those purposes might come together as a framework for innovation, or more broadly, figuring things out.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 536 eilutė iš:
Attach:L23.png
į:
Attach:L23.jpg
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:19 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 458-459 eilutės iš
Human games are characterized by the creation of a shared world. Dutch historian Johan Huizinga called it the magic circle. His book, Homo Ludens, considers play the formative element of human culture. Well, many animals play, but truly his ideas center on games.
į:
Human games are characterized by the creation of a shared world. Dutch historian Johan Huizinga called it the magic circle. His book, Homo Ludens, considers play the formative element of human culture. Well, many animals play, but truly Huizinga's ideas center on games.
Pakeista 532 eilutė iš:
Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo are consultants who wrote a book called Gamestorming and have a related website. They have collected about 100 innovation games played in Silicon Valley to help corporate teams function creatively. I became interested
į:
Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo are consultants who wrote a book called Gamestorming and have a related website. They have collected about 100 innovation games played in Silicon Valley to help corporate teams function creatively. Different games serve different purposes and I became interested in how those purposes might come together as a framework for innovation, or more broadly, the ways of figuring things out.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:15 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 450 eilutė iš:
What does syntax add to language? I believe that it allows us to construct a system of perspectives which go beyond what we can focus on here and now. It thus radically expands our ability to acknowledge what we don't understand, not just isolated words, but complicated thoughts which may make sense later or which may prove to be contradictory or simply nonsense. I will show how a universal grammar is presumed in playing games. But first I will make our joint intentionality all more vivid by suggesting the related physical characteristics by which we diverged from other apes.
į:
What does syntax add to language? I believe that it allows us to construct a system of perspectives which go beyond what we can focus on here and now. It thus radically expands our ability to acknowledge what we don't understand, not just isolated words, but complicated thoughts which may make sense later or which may prove to be contradictory or simply nonsense. I will show how a universal grammar is presumed in playing games. But first I will make our joint intentionality all the more vivid by suggesting a related physical characteristic by which we diverged from other apes.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:03 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 530 eilutė iš:
I will now present a wonderful source of anthropological data about games. I will use this data to propose a Universal Grammar for games and all activity for creating meaning, including human language.
į:
I will now present a wonderful source of anthropological data about games. I will use this data to propose a Universal Grammar for games and all human activity for creating meaning, including human language.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 22:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 526-527 eilutės iš
Attach:L22.jpg
į:
Attach:L22.png
Pakeistos 530-533 eilutės iš
į:
I will now present a wonderful source of anthropological data about games. I will use this data to propose a Universal Grammar for games and all activity for creating meaning, including human language.

Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo are consultants who wrote a book called Gamestorming and have a related website. They have collected about 100 innovation games played in Silicon Valley to help corporate teams function creatively. I became interested
Pakeistos 536-537 eilutės iš
Attach:L23.jpg
į:
Attach:L23.png
Pakeistos 542-543 eilutės iš
Attach:L24.jpg
į:
Attach:L24.png
Pakeistos 548-549 eilutės iš
Attach:L25.jpg
į:
Attach:L25.png
Pakeistos 554-555 eilutės iš
Attach:L26.jpg
į:
Attach:L26.png
Pakeistos 560-561 eilutės iš
Attach:L27.jpg
į:
Attach:L27.png
Pakeistos 566-567 eilutės iš
Attach:L28.jpg
į:
Attach:L28.png
Pakeistos 572-573 eilutės iš
Attach:L29.jpg
į:
Attach:L29.png
Pakeista 578 eilutė iš:
Attach:L30.jpg
į:
Attach:L30.png
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 354 eilutė iš:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness enough to coordinate our activity so that we might perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of many things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and in doing so we do not share a definition of what a glass is, but rather we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. Indeed, the dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of our personal rationalizations of our unconscious neural capabilities. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to make explicit what we unconsciously know and what we consciously don't know.
į:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness enough to coordinate our activity so that we might perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of many things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see from afar if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and in doing so we do not share a definition of what a glass is, but rather we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. Indeed, the dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of our personal rationalizations of our unconscious neural capabilities. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to make explicit what we unconsciously know and what we consciously don't know.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:42 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 352 eilutė iš:
I will present an alternative to what I think is an erroneous assumption made in linguistics as well as analytic philosophy that language is well defined. In particular, linguists assume that words are well defined, which is to say, we know what they mean. For example, Ronald Langacker, in his book "Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction", talks about the cognitive domains which we appeal to in talking about a glass, such as the space it takes up, the shape it has, its function as a container, its function as a means for drinking. But the fact is that none of us truly knows what we or others mean by glass. And our lack of clarity would become obvious if the glass grew larger so that some of us would claim that it is a glass but others would argue that it is a container or a piece of furniture. Pragmatically, we don't need to know absolutely what we mean by glass because typically we're not interested in the concept of a glass or even a particular glass but what we really want is some water or simply to quench our thirst.
į:
I will present an alternative to what I think is an erroneous assumption made in linguistics as well as analytic philosophy that language is well defined. In particular, linguists assume that words are well defined, which is to say, we know what they mean. For example, Ronald Langacker, in his book "Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction", talks about the cognitive domains which we appeal to in talking about a glass, such as the space it takes up, the shape it has, its function as a container, its function as a means for drinking. But the fact is that none of us truly knows what we or others mean by the word "glass". And our lack of clarity would become obvious if the glass grew larger so that some of us would claim that it is a glass but others would argue that it is a container or a piece of furniture. Pragmatically, we don't need to know absolutely what we mean by glass because typically we're not interested in the concept of a glass or even a particular glass but what we really want is some water or simply to quench our thirst.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 518-519 eilutės iš
Attach:G17.jpg
į:
Attach:L21.jpg
Pakeistos 526-527 eilutės iš
Attach:G18.jpg
į:
Attach:L22.jpg
Pridėtos 531-577 eilutės:
-------------

Attach:L23.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L24.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L25.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L26.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L27.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L28.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L29.jpg

-------------

-------------

Attach:L30.jpg

-------------
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:17 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 522 eilutė iš:
Autism is, in fact, a spectrum, including Asperger's syndrome, which by this analogy, suggests that some may lack this "sixth sense" to a degree, just as I am poor of sight.
į:
Autism is, in fact, a spectrum, including Asperger's syndrome, which by this analogy, suggests that some may lack this "sixth sense" to a degree, just as I myself am poor of sight.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:16 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 506 eilutė iš:
Autistic people seem to be lacking precisely this physical faculty. It is as if they are blind or deaf with regard to this sixth sense. Such a disability would make it hard for them to join with others in a shared world.
į:
Autistic people seem to be lacking precisely this physical faculty. It is as if they are blind or deaf with regard to this sixth sense. Such a physical disability would make it hard for them to join with others in a shared world.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:15 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 514-516 eilutės iš
Autistic people face the challenge of consciously learning the cues for joint intentionality which the rest of us master unconsciously. "Come be with me" is a game to develop joint attention.
į:
Autistic people face the challenge of consciously learning the cues for joint intentionality which the rest of us master unconsciously. "Come be with me", "Come play with me", "Come do what I do" are games to develop joint intentionality.
Pridėtos 522-525 eilutės:
Autism is, in fact, a spectrum, including Asperger's syndrome, which by this analogy, suggests that some may lack this "sixth sense" to a degree, just as I am poor of sight.

-------------
Pridėtos 527-530 eilutės:

-------------
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:11 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 482 eilutė iš:
As Tomasello has noted, chimpanzees play different roles in a team, for example, in hunting a monkey. One monkey may chase it from above and another from below. But each of the chimpanzees is thinking - that is my monkey! - and does not expect to share it, should it capture the monkey. Chimpanzees are not loyal to the task at hand, and can get distracted by something more enticing. As we see in this picture, each of these chimpanzees is in its own world.
į:
As Tomasello has noted, chimpanzees play different roles in a team, for example, in hunting a monkey. One chimpanzee may chase the monkey from above and another from below. But each of the chimpanzees is thinking - that is my monkey! - and does not expect to share it, should it capture the monkey. Chimpanzees are not loyal to the task at hand, and can get distracted by something more enticing. As we see in this picture, each of these chimpanzees is in its own world.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 498 eilutė iš:
Whereas in this picture of Ethiopian children singing, we see a wonderful harmony in how they naturally arrange themselves, even though their attention is scattered in different directions. Thus I imagine that this human "sixth sense" may have coevolved as the basis for our joint intentionality. Such a sense may have genetically arisen in identical twins, and their coordination may have been sexually attractive, fueling a virtuous cycle of evolution. Humans may have learned to establish and sustain joint intentionality through singing, drumming and dancing in unison, perhaps while foraging, an perhaps to foster a shared mindset before a hunt and afterward as well. Such activity could have driven the evolution of our vocal cords, our hands and our posture.
į:
Whereas in this picture of Ethiopian children singing, we see a wonderful harmony in how they naturally arrange themselves, even though their attention is scattered in different directions. Thus I imagine that this human "sixth sense" may have coevolved as the basis for our joint intentionality. Such a sense may have genetically arisen in identical twins, and their coordination may have been sexually attractive, fueling a virtuous cycle of evolution. Humans may have learned to establish and sustain joint intentionality through singing, drumming and dancing in unison, perhaps while foraging, and perhaps to foster a shared mindset before a hunt and afterwards as well. Such activity could have driven the evolution of our vocal cords, our hands and our posture.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:08 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 498 eilutė iš:
Whereas in this picture of Ethiopian children singing, we see a wonderful harmony in how they naturally arrange themselves, even though their attention is scattered in different directions. Thus I imagine that this human "sixth sense" may have coevolved as the basis for our joint intentionality. Such a sense may have genetically arisen in identical twins, and may have been sexually attractive, fueling a virtuous cycle of evolution. Humans may have learned to establish and sustain joint intentionality through singing, drumming and dancing in unison, perhaps while foraging, an perhaps to foster a shared mindset before a hunt and afterward as well. Such activity could have driven the evolution of our vocal cords, our hands and our posture.
į:
Whereas in this picture of Ethiopian children singing, we see a wonderful harmony in how they naturally arrange themselves, even though their attention is scattered in different directions. Thus I imagine that this human "sixth sense" may have coevolved as the basis for our joint intentionality. Such a sense may have genetically arisen in identical twins, and their coordination may have been sexually attractive, fueling a virtuous cycle of evolution. Humans may have learned to establish and sustain joint intentionality through singing, drumming and dancing in unison, perhaps while foraging, an perhaps to foster a shared mindset before a hunt and afterward as well. Such activity could have driven the evolution of our vocal cords, our hands and our posture.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:07 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 490 eilutė iš:
Note in this picture of chimpanzees together that they are not actually focused on the group but on their one-to-one relationships within it.
į:
Note in this picture of chimpanzees together that they are not actually focused on the group but on their one-to-one relationships within it. Gorillas do play tag but I suspect it is a one-on-one activity.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 21:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 458-459 eilutės iš
Human games are characterized by the creation of a shared world.
į:
Human games are characterized by the creation of a shared world. Dutch historian Johan Huizinga called it the magic circle. His book, Homo Ludens, considers play the formative element of human culture. Well, many animals play, but truly his ideas center on games.
Pakeistos 466-467 eilutės iš
Physically, I believe that this is supported by a bodily harmony, a synchronization of our unconscious movements, as if we were all dancing in slow motion. I have marked some examples of this harmony, which is sometimes called mirroring but is actually much more complex in that our bodies unconsciously acknowledge all of the people around us, as we can surely see if we look around the room.
į:
Physically, I believe that our games are facilitated by a bodily harmony, a synchronization of our unconscious movements, as if we were all dancing in slow motion. I have marked some examples of this harmony, which is sometimes called mirroring but is actually much more complex in that our bodies unconsciously acknowledge all of the people around us, as we can surely see if we look around this room.
Pakeistos 474-475 eilutės iš
Our bodies seek this harmony even when our thoughts are in different worlds.
į:
Our bodies seek this harmony even when we compete against each other or when our thoughts are in different worlds.
Pakeistos 506-507 eilutės iš
Autistic people seem precisely to be lacking this physical faculty, this sixth sense. They face the challenge of consciously learning the cues for joint intentionality which the rest of us master unconsciously.
į:
Autistic people seem to be lacking precisely this physical faculty. It is as if they are blind or deaf with regard to this sixth sense. Such a disability would make it hard for them to join with others in a shared world.
Pakeista 514 eilutė iš:
Thus they learn games
į:
Autistic people face the challenge of consciously learning the cues for joint intentionality which the rest of us master unconsciously. "Come be with me" is a game to develop joint attention.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 13:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 506-507 eilutės iš
Autistic people seem precisely to be lacking this physical faculty.
į:
Autistic people seem precisely to be lacking this physical faculty, this sixth sense. They face the challenge of consciously learning the cues for joint intentionality which the rest of us master unconsciously.
Pridėtos 513-514 eilutės:

Thus they learn games
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 13:36 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 498-499 eilutės iš
į:
Whereas in this picture of Ethiopian children singing, we see a wonderful harmony in how they naturally arrange themselves, even though their attention is scattered in different directions. Thus I imagine that this human "sixth sense" may have coevolved as the basis for our joint intentionality. Such a sense may have genetically arisen in identical twins, and may have been sexually attractive, fueling a virtuous cycle of evolution. Humans may have learned to establish and sustain joint intentionality through singing, drumming and dancing in unison, perhaps while foraging, an perhaps to foster a shared mindset before a hunt and afterward as well. Such activity could have driven the evolution of our vocal cords, our hands and our posture.
Pridėta 506 eilutė:
Autistic people seem precisely to be lacking this physical faculty.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 13:27 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 482 eilutė iš:
As Tomasello has noted, chimpanzees play different roles in a team, for example, in hunting a monkey. One monkey may chase it from above and another from below. But each of the chimpanzees is thinking - that is my monkey! - and does not expect to share it, should it capture the mokey, nor does it stay loyal to the other chimpanzees, if it gets distracted by something more enticing. As we see in this picture, each of these chimpanzees is in its own world.
į:
As Tomasello has noted, chimpanzees play different roles in a team, for example, in hunting a monkey. One monkey may chase it from above and another from below. But each of the chimpanzees is thinking - that is my monkey! - and does not expect to share it, should it capture the monkey. Chimpanzees are not loyal to the task at hand, and can get distracted by something more enticing. As we see in this picture, each of these chimpanzees is in its own world.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 13:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 466-467 eilutės:
Physically, I believe that this is supported by a bodily harmony, a synchronization of our unconscious movements, as if we were all dancing in slow motion. I have marked some examples of this harmony, which is sometimes called mirroring but is actually much more complex in that our bodies unconsciously acknowledge all of the people around us, as we can surely see if we look around the room.
Pridėtos 474-475 eilutės:
Our bodies seek this harmony even when our thoughts are in different worlds.
Pridėtos 482-483 eilutės:
As Tomasello has noted, chimpanzees play different roles in a team, for example, in hunting a monkey. One monkey may chase it from above and another from below. But each of the chimpanzees is thinking - that is my monkey! - and does not expect to share it, should it capture the mokey, nor does it stay loyal to the other chimpanzees, if it gets distracted by something more enticing. As we see in this picture, each of these chimpanzees is in its own world.
Pridėtos 489-490 eilutės:

Note in this picture of chimpanzees together that they are not actually focused on the group but on their one-to-one relationships within it.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 13:10 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 457-458 eilutės:

Human games are characterized by the creation of a shared world.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 12:52 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 454-455 eilutės iš
Attach:L13.png
į:
Attach:L13.jpg
Pakeistos 460-461 eilutės iš
Attach:L14.png
į:
Attach:L14.jpg
Pakeistos 466-467 eilutės iš
Attach:L15.png
į:
Attach:L15.jpg
Pakeistos 472-473 eilutės iš
Attach:L16.png
į:
Attach:L16.jpg
Pakeistos 478-479 eilutės iš
Attach:L17.png
į:
Attach:L17.jpg
Pakeistos 484-485 eilutės iš
Attach:L09.png
į:
Attach:L18.png
Pridėta 488 eilutė:
Pakeistos 491-498 eilutės iš
Attach:G02.png



Language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
* The evolution of the central nervous systems focuses resources on the unknown.
* Development of dialogue between two hemispheres.
* Human evolution as creators of meaning through games.
į:
Attach:L19.jpg
Pakeistos 495-496 eilutės iš
Attach:G03.png
į:
Pakeistos 498-499 eilutės iš
Attach:G04.png
į:
Attach:L20.png
Ištrintos 501-545 eilutės:
Attach:G05.png

-------------

Attach:G06.png

-------------

Attach:G07.png

-------------

Attach:G08.png

-------------

Attach:G09.jpg

-------------

Attach:G10.jpg

-------------

Attach:G11.jpg

-------------

Attach:G12.jpg

-------------

Attach:G13.jpg

-------------

Attach:G14.png

-------------

Attach:G15.jpg

-------------

Attach:G16.png
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 12:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 448 eilutė iš:
Koko the gorilla makes use of about 1,000 signs and has even invented signs of her own, such as the ones pictured. Koko is able to string words together in intelligent ways. However, she does so without syntax. This syntaxless language is what Roy Jackendoff calls linear grammar. It is characterstic of the pidgin by which sailors communicate, the sign languages which deaf children invent to speak with their parents, and the limited way in which some immigrants learn to speak the local language.
į:
Koko the gorilla makes use of about 1,000 signs and has even invented signs of her own, such as the ones pictured. Koko is able to string words together in intelligent ways. However, she does so without syntax. This syntaxless language is what Roy Jackendoff calls linear grammar. It is characterstic of the pidgin by which sailors communicate, the sign languages which deaf children invent to speak with their parents, the limited way in which some immigrants learn to speak the local language, and the diminished abilities of those who suffer certain kinds of brain damage.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 12:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 448-450 eilutės iš


Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar
.
į:
Koko the gorilla makes use of about 1,000 signs and has even invented signs of her own, such as the ones pictured. Koko is able to string words together in intelligent ways. However, she does so without syntax. This syntaxless language is what Roy Jackendoff calls linear grammar. It is characterstic of the pidgin by which sailors communicate, the sign languages which deaf children invent to speak with their parents, and the limited way in which some immigrants learn to speak the local language.

What does syntax add to language? I believe that it allows us to construct a system of perspectives which go beyond what we can focus on here and now. It thus radically expands our ability to acknowledge what we don't understand, not just isolated words, but complicated thoughts which may make sense later or which may prove to be contradictory or simply nonsense. I will show how a universal grammar is presumed in playing games. But first I will make our joint intentionality all more vivid by suggesting the related physical characteristics by which we diverged from other apes.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:57 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 438-440 eilutės iš
Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will describe this joint intentionality as an expansion of the tiny, abstract world which we inhabit in our minds. I claim that it arises when we conceive of a perspective on a perspective on a perspective. The middle perspective is a shared world that we can improvise. We create and experience that shared world as a game which we enter and leave. We play the game by executing a grammar to align the semantics of what we know by stepping in with the syntax of what we don't know by stepping out.
į:
Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will describe this joint intentionality as an expansion of the tiny, abstract world which we inhabit in our minds. I claim that it arises when we conceive of a perspective on a perspective on a perspective. The middle perspective is a shared world that we can improvise. We create and experience that shared world as a game which we enter and leave. We play the game by executing a grammar which expands the ways we may align the semantics of what we know by stepping in with the syntax of what we don't know by stepping out.

I am researching three conceptual languages that this makes possible: argumentation by which issues come to matter, verbalization by which words have meaning, and narration by which events happen. In what follows, I focus on verbalization, the basis for natural language.
Ištrintos 443-447 eilutės:
Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.


-------------
Pridėtos 447-450 eilutės:



Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 438-439 eilutės iš
Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will describe this joint intentionality as an expansion of the abstract world in which we live. I claim that it arises when we allow for a third perspective,
į:
Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will describe this joint intentionality as an expansion of the tiny, abstract world which we inhabit in our minds. I claim that it arises when we conceive of a perspective on a perspective on a perspective. The middle perspective is a shared world that we can improvise. We create and experience that shared world as a game which we enter and leave. We play the game by executing a grammar to align the semantics of what we know by stepping in with the syntax of what we don't know by stepping out.
Pakeistos 443-465 eilutės iš
Attach:L09.png

-------------






-------------

Attach:L10
.png

-------------

Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are
. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.


-------------

Attach:L11.png

-------------
į:
Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:31 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 432-433 eilutės iš
Attach:L10.png
į:
Attach:L11.png
Pakeista 438 eilutė iš:
Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will
į:
Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will describe this joint intentionality as an expansion of the abstract world in which we live. I claim that it arises when we allow for a third perspective,
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:07 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 412 eilutė iš:
I have further documented the abstract structures by which we experience a perspective on perspective. For example, the Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
į:
I have further documented the abstract structures by which we experience a perspective on a perspective. For example, the Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 384 eilutė iš:
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which the questions of our conscious mind can be matched by the answers of unconscious mind.
į:
I have systematically catalogued such highly abstract cognitive frameworks which structure the options for our imagination. Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which the questions of our conscious mind can be matched by the answers of unconscious mind.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 352 eilutė iš:
I will present an alternative to what I think is an erroneous assumption made in linguistics as well as analytic philosophy that language is well defined. In particular, it is assumed that words are well defined, which is to say, we know what they mean. For example, Ronald Langacker, in his book "Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction", talks about the cognitive domains which we appeal to in talking about a glass, such as the space it takes up, the shape it has, its function as a container, its function as a means for drinking. But the fact is that none of us truly knows what we or others mean by glass. And our lack of clarity would become obvious if the glass grew larger so that some of us would claim that it is a glass but others would argue that it is a container or a piece of furniture. Pragmatically, we don't need to know absolutely what we mean by glass because typically we're not interested in a concept of glass or even a particular glass but what we really want is some water or simply to quench our thirst.
į:
I will present an alternative to what I think is an erroneous assumption made in linguistics as well as analytic philosophy that language is well defined. In particular, linguists assume that words are well defined, which is to say, we know what they mean. For example, Ronald Langacker, in his book "Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction", talks about the cognitive domains which we appeal to in talking about a glass, such as the space it takes up, the shape it has, its function as a container, its function as a means for drinking. But the fact is that none of us truly knows what we or others mean by glass. And our lack of clarity would become obvious if the glass grew larger so that some of us would claim that it is a glass but others would argue that it is a container or a piece of furniture. Pragmatically, we don't need to know absolutely what we mean by glass because typically we're not interested in the concept of a glass or even a particular glass but what we really want is some water or simply to quench our thirst.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 11:00 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 342 eilutė iš:
The original title for my talk was a question: "Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?" Having investigated this question, I will talk about my findings, and so accordingly, I name my talk: "Games as the Foundation for Universal Grammar".
į:
The original title for my talk was a question: "Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?" Having made some progress on this question, I will talk about my findings, and so accordingly, I name my talk: "Games as the Foundation for Universal Grammar".
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 10:18 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrintos 387-392 eilutės:


Logic establishes a perfect duality whereby we can equally well think in terms of what is or what is not, what we know or what we don't know.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God.
Pakeistos 394-395 eilutės iš
I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities. Thus when we become conscious of the issue of existence, then our state of mind is defined by the issue of decision making.
į:
The logic of the sevensome establishes a perfect duality whereby we can equally well think in terms of what is or what is not, what we know or what we don't know.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty
, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God.
Pakeistos 404-405 eilutės iš
I have further documented the abstract structures by which we experience a perspective on perspective. For example, the Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
į:
I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities. Thus when we become conscious of the issue of existence, then our state of mind is defined by the issue of decision making.
Pakeistos 412-413 eilutės iš
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
į:
I have further documented the abstract structures by which we experience a perspective on perspective. For example, the Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
Pakeistos 420-423 eilutės iš
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit. In this tiny world we have the freedom to adjust parameters, that is, to prefer certain attitudes, dispositions, options, perspectives, which then shape all of the unconscious decisions, responses and scripts that we follow in life.

We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in
.
į:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
Pakeistos 428-429 eilutės iš
Consciousness is our ability to choose whether to step in or to step out. In this sense, apes are likely conscious in much the same way that we are.
į:
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit. In this tiny world we have the freedom to adjust parameters, that is, to prefer certain values, attitudes, dispositions, options, perspectives, which then shape all of the unconscious decisions, responses and scripts that we follow in the world of symbols, indices and icons which we are immersed in.

-------------

Attach:L10.png

-------------

Consciousness is our ability to choose whether to step in or to step out. In this sense, apes are likely conscious in much the same way that we are. In many ways, they seem to be as clever as we are.

Michael Tomasello convincingly argues that what makes us human is our joint intentionality, our ability to come together as an ad hoc "we", to conduct an activity on behalf of all, and then to share in the outcome. I will
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 10:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 384-385 eilutės iš
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. Logic establishes a perfect duality whereby we can equally well think in terms of what is or what is not, what we know or what we don't know.
į:
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which the questions of our conscious mind can be matched by the answers of unconscious mind.

Our unconscious mind is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. System 2 is our slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity. Cognitively, our conscious mind governs our unconscious mind, and emotionally, our unconscious mind provokes our conscious mind. The end result will be that we can match the semantics of what our unconscious mind knows with the syntax that structures what our conscious mind does not know.



Logic establishes a perfect duality whereby we can equally well think in terms of what is or what is not, what we know or what we don't know.
Pridėtos 426-427 eilutės:
We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in.
Pakeistos 445-447 eilutės iš
The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which our conscious mind and our unconscious mind interact. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in.

This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity. Cognitively, our conscious mind governs our unconscious mind, and emotionally, our unconscious mind provokes our conscious mind. The end result is that we apply what our unconscious mind knows to deal with what our conscious mind does not know.
į:
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 09:59 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 384-385 eilutės iš
The Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
į:
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad. Logic establishes a perfect duality whereby we can equally well think in terms of what is or what is not, what we know or what we don't know.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God
.
Pakeistos 394-395 eilutės iš
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
į:
I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities. Thus when we become conscious of the issue of existence, then our state of mind is defined by the issue of decision making.
Pakeistos 402-403 eilutės iš
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit.
į:
I have further documented the abstract structures by which we experience a perspective on perspective. For example, the Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
Pakeistos 410-413 eilutės iš
Consciousness is our ability to choose whether to step in or to step out. In this sense, apes are likely conscious in much the same way that we are.

My point is that I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of
a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities.
į:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
Pakeistos 418-426 eilutės iš

Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points
of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God.

The sevensome
is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which our conscious mind and our unconscious mind interact. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in.

This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity. Cognitively, our conscious mind governs our unconscious mind, and emotionally, our unconscious mind provokes our conscious mind. The end result is that we apply what our unconscious mind knows to deal with what our conscious mind does not know.
į:
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit. In this tiny world we have the freedom to adjust parameters, that is, to prefer certain attitudes, dispositions, options, perspectives, which then shape all of the unconscious decisions, responses and scripts that we follow in life.

-------------

Attach:L10.png

-------------

Consciousness is our ability to choose whether to step in or to step out. In this sense, apes are likely conscious in much the same way that we
are.

-------------

Attach:L09
.png

-------------
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 09:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 407-408 eilutės:

Consciousness is our ability to choose whether to step in or to step out. In this sense, apes are likely conscious in much the same way that we are.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 09:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 384 eilutė iš:
The Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Together the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
į:
The Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Ultimately the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 09:27 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 400-403 eilutės iš
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God
.
į:
I am describing highly abstract cognitive building blocks. Some of them are frameworks which divide our global workspace into perspectives. Others are perspectives on perspectives, either having us step out, and consider all of our available perspectives, as with the representations, or having us step in, immersed in a particular perspective, as with the circumstances. Over the years I have documented a system of eight divisions, six representations and twelve circumstances which define an abstract world that our minds inhabit.
Pridėtos 415-419 eilutės:


Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 09:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 392 eilutė iš:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define one, all and many as primitives.
į:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define "one", "all" and "many" as primitives.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 09:08 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 392 eilutė iš:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define one, all and many is primitives.
į:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define one, all and many as primitives.
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 08:35 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 384-387 eilutės iš
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God
.
į:
The Foursome, the framework for knowledge, has two representations which are important for the distinction between syntax and semantics. Idealists consider the observer's perspective, their questions, what they don't know, and consider Why most important and dismiss Whether as irrelevant. Materialists think in terms of answers, the observed's point of view, what is known, and so for them Whether is most real and they would eliminate Why. Together the two representations allow us to have syntactic variables and semantic instances.
Pakeistos 392-393 eilutės iš
My point is that I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities.
į:
The Threesome, the framework for participation, has four representations. Their twelve perspectives define the vocabulary of our imagination, the circumstances that we can attribute. We derive these circumstances by playing mind games. For example, let us look for constancy. Either we find one example, or all is constantly unconstant. Furthermore, in searching for constancy, we assume that whatever we have selected and evaluated is the same, and so they are multiply constant. With such a mind game we define one, all and many is primitives.
Pakeistos 400-403 eilutės iš
The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which our conscious mind and our unconscious mind interact. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in.

This depends on
a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity. Cognitively, our conscious mind governs our unconscious mind, and emotionally, our unconscious mind provokes our conscious mind. The end result is that we apply what our unconscious mind knows to deal with what our conscious mind does not know.
į:
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all
are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God.
Pakeistos 410-411 eilutės iš
Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.
į:
My point is that I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities.

-------------

Attach:L09.png

-------------

The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which our conscious mind and our unconscious mind interact. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in.

This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity. Cognitively, our conscious mind governs our unconscious mind, and emotionally, our unconscious mind provokes our conscious mind. The end result is that we apply what our unconscious mind knows to deal with what our conscious mind does not know.

-------------

Attach:L10.png

-------------

Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.


-------------

Attach:L11.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L12.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L13.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L14.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L15.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L16.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L17.png

-------------
2017 lapkričio 24 d., 00:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 404-405 eilutės iš
This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity.
į:
This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity. Cognitively, our conscious mind governs our unconscious mind, and emotionally, our unconscious mind provokes our conscious mind. The end result is that we apply what our unconscious mind knows to deal with what our conscious mind does not know.
Pakeistos 412-413 eilutės iš
Apes are very clever and may be conscious just as we are.
Apes are able to learn language with nonlinear grammar.
į:
Apes are very clever and may be just as conscious as we are. They are able to learn language to a remarkable degree. However, their language lacks syntax. Jackendoff nonlinear grammar.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 23:45 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 412 eilutė:
Apes are very clever and may be conscious just as we are.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 23:44 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 411-412 eilutės:

Apes are able to learn language with nonlinear grammar.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 23:33 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 404 eilutė iš:
This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets have equal sway.
į:
This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets are advocated with equal clarity.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 23:32 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 401-404 eilutės:

The sevensome is extremely important because it establishes the balancing act by which our conscious mind and our unconscious mind interact. We experience our cognitive frameworks as what we don't know, as perspectives that we can structure and choose from in reducing our vagueness. In setting these high level parameters, we are tuning our values by which we influence how we unconsciously react to the world of symbols, indices and icons that we are immersed in.

This depends on a balanced dialogue between two different mindsets. One is Kahneman's System 1, the fast thinking, associative, unconscious mind which always yields the one intuitive answer that summarizes the knowledge of a hundred million neurons. The other is System 2, the slow thinking, conscious mind which comes up with questions that focus us on what we don't know, and forces us to consider several points of view. We can imagine these as championed by the right and left hemispheres, although what matters is not the particular implementation, but that both mindsets have equal sway.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 23:13 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 384-387 eilutės:
Decision making requires five points of view and morality six points of view. Finally, the sevensome establishes the logical square which we need for a self-standing system, including the ability to divide and thus define opposites such as true and false or good and bad.

An eighth perspective would include the possibility "all are true and all are false", in which case the system is empty, it collapses and we have the Nullsome, the division of everything into no perspectives, like a blank page or an empty mind, by which we contemplate issues of God.
Pridėtos 393-394 eilutės:

My point is that I believe it is possible to model our experience of life in terms of eight highly abstract cognitive frameworks. We move from issue to issue by adding perspectives. Indeed, for consciousness we add three perspectives, for to be conscious of a framework, we need to be able to step into, and step out of it, and avail ourselves of both possiblities.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 22:47 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 371-376 eilutės:

Humans and probably apes are able to divide up our global workspace into a few perspectives which define a particular issue. For example, matters of existence require two points of view: We need to be able to raise a question, does a chair exist or not? but also suppose an answer: If it exists, then it exists; if not, then not. In linguistics, this is the fundamental distinction between construal and content.

Similarly, questions of participation require three points of view: a cycle of taking a stand, following through, and reflecting. Such a cycle is the basis for the scientific method: having a hypothesis, conducting an experiment, and intepreting the results.

Issues of knowledge require four points of view: whether, what, how and why. We experience a cup as a sensory image, What, but also as a mental blueprint, How. We may furthermore imagine Whether the cup is in a cupboard even when nobody sees it. And when we imagine Why there is a cup, then we suppose that we must know its relationships with absolutely everything.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 22:29 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 365-400 eilutės:

-------------

Attach:L04.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L05.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L06.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L07.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L08.png

-------------

-------------

Attach:L09.png

-------------
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 22:16 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 364 eilutė iš:
A single-celled paramecium engages the world directly by way of its receptors for light and chemicals. But a butterfly lives in a world of flowers, that is, a neural representation of the world in terms of sensorial images which it pays attention to. As neuroscientist Michael Graziano has noted, a mouse furthermore has awareness, in that it utilizes a model of attention which it can identify not only with its own attention, and thus be itself aware, but likewise model a cat's attention, and thus be aware of whether or not the cat is attending to the mouse. Thus the mouse lives an abstract world of indexical and causal relationships. But humans and perhaps the great apes can moreover be conscious, that is, we can choose what we wish to be aware of. We can focus on a symbol itself or focus on what it refers to.
į:
A single-celled paramecium engages the world directly by way of its receptors for light and chemicals. But a butterfly lives in a world of flowers, that is, a neural representation of the world in terms of sensorial images which it pays attention to. As neuroscientist Michael Graziano has noted, a mouse furthermore has awareness, in that it utilizes a model of attention which it can identify not only with its own attention, and thus be itself aware, but likewise model a cat's attention, and thus be aware of whether or not the cat is attending to the mouse. Thus the mouse lives an abstract world of indexical and causal relationships. But humans and perhaps the great apes can moreover be conscious, that is, we can choose what we wish to be aware of. We can focus on a symbol itself or focus on what it might refer to.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 22:15 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 364-365 eilutės iš
į:
A single-celled paramecium engages the world directly by way of its receptors for light and chemicals. But a butterfly lives in a world of flowers, that is, a neural representation of the world in terms of sensorial images which it pays attention to. As neuroscientist Michael Graziano has noted, a mouse furthermore has awareness, in that it utilizes a model of attention which it can identify not only with its own attention, and thus be itself aware, but likewise model a cat's attention, and thus be aware of whether or not the cat is attending to the mouse. Thus the mouse lives an abstract world of indexical and causal relationships. But humans and perhaps the great apes can moreover be conscious, that is, we can choose what we wish to be aware of. We can focus on a symbol itself or focus on what it refers to.

-------------

Attach:G02.png
Ištrintos 375-377 eilutės:

Attach:G02.png
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 22:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 362 eilutė iš:
I will evolution...
į:
I will present an account of how the central nervous system has evolved to allow for a dialogue between two kinds of thinking, what Kahneman calls System 1 and System 2, and what I will call what we unconsciously know and what we consciously don't know, which I claim are the basis for semantics and syntax, respectively. The evidence by which cognitive linguists such as Lakoff argue for the embodied mind can likewise be used to argue for a disembodying mind which focuses ever more resources on what we don't know.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 21:56 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 20:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 354 eilutė iš:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness but especially to coordinate our activity enough so that we might perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of many things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and in doing so we do not share a definition of what is a glass, but rather we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. Indeed, the dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of our personal rationalizations of our unconscious neural capabilities. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to relate what we unconciously know and what we consciously don't know.
į:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness enough to coordinate our activity so that we might perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of many things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and in doing so we do not share a definition of what a glass is, but rather we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. Indeed, the dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of our personal rationalizations of our unconscious neural capabilities. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to make explicit what we unconsciously know and what we consciously don't know.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 20:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 354 eilutė iš:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness but especially to coordinate our activity so that we can perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and we do so not because we share a definition of what is a glass, but rather because we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. The dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of the personal rationalizations of this unconscious neural capability. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to relate what we unconciously know and what we consciously don't know.
į:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness but especially to coordinate our activity enough so that we might perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of many things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and in doing so we do not share a definition of what is a glass, but rather we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. Indeed, the dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of our personal rationalizations of our unconscious neural capabilities. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to relate what we unconciously know and what we consciously don't know.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 20:36 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 354-355 eilutės iš
that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, pragmatics, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
* Alternative: Coordinating activity and the reduction of vagueness.
Language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
į:
My alternative is to recognize that our thinking is incredibly vague and that our goal is simply to reduce that vagueness but especially to coordinate our activity so that we can perform it satisfactorily. Thus we can think of a glass as one of things that we can pick up and set down, that we can wash, that we can drink from, and that we can serve to others, which is presumably why it is tall and transparent, so that we can see if it needs to be refilled. We can fulfill a request to separate the glasses from the plates in the sink, and we do so not because we share a definition of what is a glass, but rather because we each have our own quirky procedure for distinguishing a glass from other common objects. The dictionary definition of a glass is nothing more than an institutional generalization of the personal rationalizations of this unconscious neural capability. We actually don't truly know what we mean by glass and that is the point of language in that it allows us to relate what we unconciously know and what we consciously don't know.

-------------

Attach:L03.png

-------------

I will evolution...



Language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 20:22 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 352-354 eilutės iš
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, pragmatics, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
į:
I will present an alternative to what I think is an erroneous assumption made in linguistics as well as analytic philosophy that language is well defined. In particular, it is assumed that words are well defined, which is to say, we know what they mean. For example, Ronald Langacker, in his book "Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction", talks about the cognitive domains which we appeal to in talking about a glass, such as the space it takes up, the shape it has, its function as a container, its function as a means for drinking. But the fact is that none of us truly knows what we or others mean by glass. And our lack of clarity would become obvious if the glass grew larger so that some of us would claim that it is a glass but others would argue that it is a container or a piece of furniture. Pragmatically, we don't need to know absolutely what we mean by glass because typically we're not interested in a concept of glass or even a particular glass but what we really want is some water or simply to quench our thirst.

that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, pragmatics, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 19:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 346-350 eilutės:
-------------

Attach:L02.png

-------------
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 18:31 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 342 eilutė iš:
The original title for my talk was a question: "Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?" Having investigated this question, I will talk about my findings, and accordingly, name my talk: "Games as the Foundation for Universal Grammar".
į:
The original title for my talk was a question: "Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?" Having investigated this question, I will talk about my findings, and so accordingly, I name my talk: "Games as the Foundation for Universal Grammar".
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 18:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 344 eilutė iš:
I will start by noting the implausibility of traditional accounts of language as the assembly of well defined terms. Instead, I consider our minds to be naturally vague, and I think of language as a means by which we reduce this vagueness for the sake of coordinating activity.
į:
I will start by noting the implausibility of traditional accounts of language as the transmission and construction of well defined assemblies of well defined terms. Instead, I consider our minds to be naturally vague, and I think of language as a means by which we reduce this vagueness for the sake of coordinating activity. I will propose that what makes us human is our ability to play games, that is, to create shared worlds which we enter and exit. I will show how every game is in principle the same in that it potentially consists of twenty four games. I will discuss how this universal framework is precisely what is needed for all manner of syntactic phenomena, and indeed, for Noam Chomsky's Universal Grammar.
Pakeista 346 eilutė iš:
* Summary: A new title: The Grammar of Games as the Basis for Cognitive Linguistics. A proposal based on an evolutionary perspective.
į:
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 18:13 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrintos 333-334 eilutės:
[+Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?+]
Pakeistos 340-341 eilutės iš
Talk
į:
-------------

The original title for my talk was a question: "Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?" Having investigated this question, I will talk about my findings, and accordingly, name my talk: "Games as the Foundation for Universal Grammar".

I will start by noting the implausibility of traditional accounts of language as the assembly of well defined terms. Instead, I consider our minds to be naturally vague, and I think of language as a means by which we reduce this vagueness for the sake of coordinating activity.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 18:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrintos 7-15 eilutės:

Talk
* Summary: A new title: The Grammar of Games as the Basis for Cognitive Linguistics. A proposal based on an evolutionary perspective.
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, pragmatics, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
* Alternative: Coordinating activity and the reduction of vagueness. Language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
* The evolution of the central nervous systems focuses resources on the unknown.
* Development of dialogue between two hemispheres.
* Human evolution as creators of meaning through games.
Pakeistos 342-349 eilutės iš
-------------
į:
Talk
* Summary: A new title: The Grammar of Games as the Basis for Cognitive Linguistics. A proposal based on an evolutionary perspective.
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, pragmatics, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
* Alternative: Coordinating activity and the reduction of vagueness. Language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
* The evolution of the central nervous systems focuses resources on the unknown.
* Development of dialogue between two hemispheres.
* Human evolution as creators of meaning through games.
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 17:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 345-346 eilutės iš
[++Games as the Basis for Universal Grammar++]
į:
[++Games as the Foundation for Universal Grammar++]

-------------
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 17:33 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 348 eilutė iš:
Attach:G01.png
į:
Attach:L01.png
2017 lapkričio 23 d., 16:42 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 341-452 eilutės:
-----------------------

[+Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?+]

[++Games as the Basis for Universal Grammar++]


Attach:G01.png

-------------

Attach:G02.png

-------------

Attach:G03.png

-------------

Attach:G04.png

-------------

Attach:G05.png

-------------

Attach:G06.png

-------------

Attach:G07.png

-------------

Attach:G08.png

-------------

Attach:G09.jpg

-------------

Attach:G10.jpg

-------------

Attach:G11.jpg

-------------

Attach:G12.jpg

-------------

Attach:G13.jpg

-------------

Attach:G14.png

-------------

Attach:G15.jpg

-------------

Attach:G16.png

-------------

Attach:G17.jpg

-------------

Attach:G18.jpg

-------------

Attach:G19.png

-------------

Attach:G20.png

-------------

Attach:G22.png

-------------

Attach:G23.png

-------------

Attach:G24.png

-------------

Attach:G25.png

-------------

Attach:G26.png

-------------

Attach:G27.png

-------------

Attach:G99.png
2017 lapkričio 20 d., 10:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 11 eilutė iš:
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
į:
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, pragmatics, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
2017 lapkričio 19 d., 14:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 11 eilutė iš:
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, psychology, sociology and evolution.
į:
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, psychology, sociology and evolution. The root of this thinking in the abandonment of holistic philosophy in terms of continental philosophy and analytic philosophy.
2017 lapkričio 19 d., 14:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 10-11 eilutės iš
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms.
* Alternative: language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
į:
* Summary: A new title: The Grammar of Games as the Basis for Cognitive Linguistics. A proposal based on an evolutionary perspective.
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms. Why this is implausible in terms of phenomenology, psychology, sociology and evolution.
* Alternative: Coordinating activity and the reduction of vagueness. Language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
2017 lapkričio 18 d., 17:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 6 eilutė:
* Look for sequences, hierarchies and networks in game.
2017 lapkričio 18 d., 17:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 5 eilutė:
* Compare games with mathematical structures. For example, game concatenation looks like group element composition. But how does a game become a symbol or operation? Is there a relationship between games just because one follows the other?
2017 lapkričio 18 d., 17:11 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 2-5 eilutės:

Think through:
* Note relationship between recurring activity (what we care about - argumentation) and creating meaning (a game - verbalization). In what sense is creating meaning is a one-time activity and in what sense does it become a recurring activity?
2017 lapkričio 18 d., 11:26 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 2-8 eilutės:

Talk
* The erroneous assumption that language is transferred as information; and that language is constructed from definite assemblies of definite atoms.
* Alternative: language relates what is not known (questions the conscious formulates) and what is known (answers the unconscious intuits).
* The evolution of the central nervous systems focuses resources on the unknown.
* Development of dialogue between two hemispheres.
* Human evolution as creators of meaning through games.
2017 lapkričio 18 d., 11:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 42 eilutė:
* Apžvelgti [[http://www.languagesgulper.com/eng/Lithuanian.html | lietuvių kalbos gramatiką]].
2017 lapkričio 16 d., 19:51 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 153 eilutė:
* Aglutinancinės kalbos yra reguliarios.
Pridėtos 236-244 eilutės:
* Veiksmažodžių nuosakos
** Nuosakos yra kaip pokalbės, atskiros kalbos: praeičiai, dabarčiai, ateičiai.
* Eilėraščiai
** Kalbėjimas yra kaip eilėraščių kūrimas, žodžių derinimas.
* Dviprasmybės
** "Do" gali reikšti "Ar": Do you want to... nors pagrindinė reikšmė yra "daryti".
** Kiekviena kalba būtinai turi savitas tokias dviprasmybes, kaip Babelio bokšte.
** Yra dviprasmybė tarp "kaip" ir "kodėl" - priežastis santvarkoje ir už santvarkos
** Dviprasmybė tarp prasmės ir reikšmės, taip pat Jėzaus "galėti".
2017 lapkričio 16 d., 18:59 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 153 eilutė:
* Skirtingos atmintys - skirtingi santykiai su skirtingomis atmintimis: tikrove, kalba, ... Ar visų žmonių neuronų pasąmonė tampriai susijusi?
2017 lapkričio 16 d., 11:47 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrinta 149 eilutė:
Pridėta 201 eilutė:
** Two speakers separate and unite (with each sentence) in terms of not knowing and knowing.
2017 lapkričio 16 d., 09:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 286 eilutė iš:
į:
* Chris Argyris. Organizational defensive routines. Self-sealing logic. Self-fulfilling prophecy.
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 22:53 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 203-204 eilutės:
** Japanese and Korean: the topic is normally marked with a postposition such as -wa (は) or 는/은, -(n)eun. (Compare with ma in Chinese).
** Būtent Jonas spyrė kamuolį. Būtent - implies it is a comment, what we know.
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 22:37 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 225 eilutė:
** Japanese has a complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, and persons mentioned.
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 22:35 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 202-208 eilutės iš
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic_and_comment | Topic and comment]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic-prominent_language | Topic-prominent language]].
į:
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic_and_comment | Topic and comment]]
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic-prominent_language | Topic-prominent language]].
*** They tend to downplay the role of the passive voice, if a passive construction exists at all.
*** Do not have expletives or "dummy subjects" (pleonastic pronouns) like English it in It's raining.
*** They often have sentences with so-called "double subjects", actually a topic plus a subject. Zhège rén gèzi hěn gāo. "This person (topic) height (subject) tall."
*** They do not have articles (of definiteness), which are another way of indicating old vs. new information.
*** The distinction between subject and object is not reliably marked.
Pakeista 230 eilutė iš:
** nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles
į:
** nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles. Articles are sometimes considered determiners, and determiners are sometimes considered adjectives.
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 22:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 202 eilutė iš:
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic_and_comment | Topic and comment]]
į:
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic_and_comment | Topic and comment]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic-prominent_language | Topic-prominent language]].
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 22:23 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 202 eilutė:
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topic_and_comment | Topic and comment]]
Pakeistos 204-206 eilutės iš
* Word order. Palyginti lietuvių kalba: "Aš vairuoju mašiną", "Mašiną vairuoju aš", ir t.t. ir anglų kalbą "I drive car" ir kinų kalbą.
į:
* Word order.
**
Palyginti lietuvių kalba: "Aš vairuoju mašiną", "Mašiną vairuoju aš", ir t.t. ir anglų kalbą "I drive car" ir kinų kalbą.
** Word order in [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Sign_Language#Syntax | American Sign Language]]
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 22:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 220-221 eilutės:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | Parts of speech]]
** nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 21:50 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 1 eilutė iš:
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Abstract | Abstract]]
į:
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Abstract | Abstract]], [[Syntax]]
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 21:49 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 78-83 eilutės iš
Pertvarkymai
* Fonologiją ir sintaksę derina seka
* Sintaksę ir semantiką derina medis
* Semantiką ir fonologiją derina tinklas
į:
Pridėtos 82-83 eilutės:
* Žmogus mąsto žodžiais ir sakiniais nes jisai mąsto ko tyliau, ko ramiau ir tai yra ko mažiau "triukšmingas" mąstymas. Panašiai su jauduliais, gyvename ko mažiau jaudulingais jauduliais. Užtat labai lengva klaidingai suprasti jausmų ar minčių teoriją jeigu kreipiame dėmesį į triukšmingiausius, kraštutinius reiškinius.
* Vaikų ausimis suprasti kalbą - kaip susigaudyti, kaip sulaukti paaiškinimo. Galimybė klausti klausimus. Žodį gali pakartoti. Užtat paklausti. Creole kalbos: jidiš, anglų.
Pakeistos 98-99 eilutės iš
į:
* Algebra of copyright - multiple parsers.
Pakeistos 105-107 eilutės iš


Bringing together unconscious and conscious
į:
Singing in unison
* Do apes sing in unison? Apes don't seem to sing in unison.
* Singing identical twins.
* J-FOL: Baldwin effect - in evolution - relate to singing.
* Music affects the emotions by playing with the boundary between self and world. It distinguishes between the voice we identify with the self and the voice we identify with the world.
* Expressing feelings is important for joint feelings - joint expectations. Acting out feelings and symbolic substitution. Ambiguity of "I" and "we".
* Use of sound symbolically in not-situated specific fashion.
* Alan Fiske "Structures of Social Life" 4 kinds of distribution (of goods)
Synchronized behavior
* Bullowa, M. (1975). When infant and adult communicate, how do they synchronize their behaviors. Organization of behavior in face-to-face interaction, 95-127.
* Dievas - "Spirit of understanding" - joint intentionality. Activity of learning. (Visuose padalinimuose iškyla).

Origins of language
* Imitation - of people, animals, etc. Consider the usefulness of mimicking individuals. This is important for politics - "the political animal" (Aristotles) - for identifying and punishing cheaters, or rewarding assistantss, for establishing group unity. The intentionality foursome would support this.
* Interjections and exclamations.
*



Bringing together unconscious (semantics) and conscious (syntax) with shared grammar.
Pakeistos 132-150 eilutės iš
į:
* Reducing vagueness is a syntactic issue. Concreteness is semantic.
* Požiūris į požiūrį į požiūrį: Lygmenis išsako: Sintaksė - pavidalas (pasakojimas, įvykis, įsimintinumas, kaip veikėjas bręsta - atsitokėjimas atvaizdu), gramatika - susitarimas (įvardijimas, reikšmė), semantika - turinys (pagrindimas, rūpėjimas, prasmė, įsijautimas-aplinkybė).
* Database design mentality: half of the time on general rules, half the time on exceptions.
* Rules - softwired is conscious - hardwired is unconscious.
* Separating terms: rules (instructions) and data - hemispheres. Ketverybė. Syntax lets instructions be considered as data (and vice versa).
* Distinguish an item from a category - there is syntactic/semantic ambiguity.
* Jackendoff. Foundations of Language: J-FOL: Levelt 1999 "Syntax is the poor man's semantics."
* Septynerybė sulygina visuomenės žodžius ir asmeninius turinius, nesuteikia pirmenybę vienai ar kitai.
Grammar
* Grammar arises with restraints on word formation. Joint intentionality meant grammatical norms, a sense of what is grammatically correct.
* J-FOL: Syntax is the conscious mind's top down structuring. Semantics is the bottom-up reasoning. Linear grammar. Syntax characterizes and organizes abstract concepts. It steps out. So language (and grammar) is the interaction of both.
* J-FOL: Distinguish syntax (from above) and grammar (where it meets with semantics).
* Jackendorf: Word as interface rule.
Shared divisions of everything
** Shared grammar (for a shared language) makes joint intentionality cognitvely practical because it allows the divisions of everything to be manifest.
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_Role_Inventories | Belbin Team Inventory]] and other team role inventories.

Pridėtos 153-154 eilutės:
* Exceptions come first and rules come later for the less frequent. Maintenance of knowledge by recurrence. It if recurs regularly, then you can remember anything. But if it recurs rarely you need to relate it to a pattern. Multitrack.
Pertvarkymai
Pakeistos 156-162 eilutės iš
į:
* Fonologiją ir sintaksę derina seka
* Sintaksę ir semantiką derina medis
* Semantiką ir fonologiją derina tinklas
* Jackendorf on how we learn semi-productivity. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_(linguistics) | Productivity]].
* J-FOL: Completion of a system - rounding it out - Given the beginnings of a system, how "complete" is it in a phonological sense - fleshing it out - but are such maps imbalanced - do they have holes and why?
* J-FOL: Phonological aesthetic sense.
Pakeistos 177-178 eilutės iš
į:
Great ape language
* Apes can learn many hundreds of words. But they don't use nonlinear grammar. They don't ask questions. Question asking by infants may come in wanting to know what is happening - to have a shared reality - and to ask for reappraisal.
Pakeistos 195-196 eilutės iš
į:
* Banguoja mintys ir jas lenkiame teigiamai.
* Music as a link between linear grammar and recursive grammar. Music as the enrichment of a linear grammar. Alexanders "echoes". Parallel voices - drumming - overlapping patterns.
Pridėta 207 eilutė:
** J-FOL: Sentential adverbials - can be place in front or at the end - "obviously" - "Thank you" - "You're welcome."
Pakeistos 210-245 eilutės iš
į:
* Repetition
** Qi zixingch qide hen kuai. Kartoja mintį, tai linear grammar. O čia "de" ir "hen" yra sintaksės elementai. "Local syntax". "Bottom-up syntax."
* Questions - įtampos balsai
** Kalbai svarbūs įtampos balsai: Liepimas, aiškinimas, klausymas.
* Categorization
** Language gender and other agreements come from "categorization" (as noted by Levi-Strauss) and for the sake of reducing vagueness.
** J-FOL: Gender: for example, individual words - syntactic aspect of a word.
** J-FOL: Lithuanian-Spanish gender, English definite-indefinite, Chinese measure words - are syntactic activities that impose syntactic mindfulness.
* Tyla
** Tyla (nulybė) palaiko daugiaprasmybę.

Sintaksės reiškiniai
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphora_(linguistics)|Anaphora]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreement_(linguistics)|Agreement]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antecedent-contained deletion | Antecedent-contained deletion]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_Object_Marking | Differential_Object_Marking]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_case|Case]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitic | Clitics]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_control|Control]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dummy pronoun | Dummy pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_verb | Ergative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existential_clause | Existential clause]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_expletive|Expletives]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_NP_shift | Heavy NP shift]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_copula|Inverse copula sentences]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_paradox | Movement paradox]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_gap | Parasitic gap]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-drop_language|Pro-drop]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising_(linguistics) | Raising]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_(grammar) | Reciprocal]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_pronoun | Reflexive pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verb | Reflexive verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unaccusative_verb | Unaccusative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wh-movement | Wh-movement]]
Ištrintos 260-261 eilutės:
Pakeistos 273-339 eilutės iš
Qi zixingch qide hen kuai. Kartoja mintį, tai linear grammar. O čia "de" ir "hen" yra sintaksės elementai. "Local syntax". "Bottom-up syntax."

Reducing vagueness is a syntactic issue. Concreteness is semantic.

Požiūris į požiūrį į požiūrį: Lygmenis išsako: Sintaksė - pavidalas (pasakojimas, įvykis, įsimintinumas, kaip veikėjas bręsta - atsitokėjimas atvaizdu), gramatika - susitarimas (įvardijimas, reikšmė), semantika - turinys (pagrindimas, rūpėjimas, prasmė, įsijautimas-aplinkybė).



* Exceptions come first and rules come later for the less frequent. Maintenance of knowledge by recurrence. It if recurs regularly, then you can remember anything. But if it recurs rarely you need to relate it to a pattern. Multitrack.

Great ape language
* Apes can learn many hundreds of words. But they don't use nonlinear grammar. They don't ask questions. Question asking by infants may come in wanting to know what is happening - to have a shared reality - and to ask for reappraisal.

Music as a link between linear grammar and recursive grammar. Music as the enrichment of a linear grammar. Alexanders "echoes". Parallel voices - drumming - overlapping patterns.

Database design mentality: half of the time on general rules, half the time on exceptions.

Grammar arises with restraints on word formation. Joint intentionality meant grammatical norms, a sense of what is grammatically correct.

Syntactic phenomena include questions.

Singing in unison
* Do apes sing in unison? Apes don't seem to sing in unison.
* Singing identical twins.
* Music affects the emotions by playing with the boundary between self and world. It distinguishes between the voice we identify with the self and the voice we identify with the world.

Categorization
* Language gender and other agreements come from "categorization" (as noted by Levi-Strauss) and for the sake of reducing vagueness.

Jackendorf on how we learn semi-productivity. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_(linguistics) | Productivity]].

Jackendorf: Word as interface rule.

Rules - softwired is conscious - hardwired is unconscious.

Algebra of copyright - multiple parsers.

Bullowa, M. (1975). When infant and adult communicate, how do they synchronize their behaviors. Organization of behavior in face-to-face interaction, 95-127.

* Expressing feelings is important for joint feelings - joint expectations. Acting out feelings and symbolic substitution. Ambiguity of "I" and "we".
* Use of sound symbolically in not-situated specific fashion.
* Separating terms: rules (instructions) and data - hemispheres. Ketverybė. Syntax lets instructions be considered as data (and vice versa).
* Distinguish an item from a category - there is syntactic/semantic ambiguity.

* Banguoja mintys ir jas lenkiame teigiamai.

Jackendoff. Foundations of Language.
* Levelt 1999 "Syntax is the poor man's semantics."
* Syntax is the conscious mind's top down structuring.
* Semantics is the bottom-up reasoning. Linear grammar.
* Syntax characterizes and organizes abstract concepts. It steps out.
* So language (and grammar) is the interaction of both.
* Distinguish syntax (from above) and grammar (where it meets with semantics).
* Baldwin effect - in evolution - relate to singing.
* Gender: for example, individual words - syntactic aspect of a word.
* Lithuanian-Spanish gender, English definite-indefinite, Chinese measure words - are syntactic activities that impose syntactic mindfulness.
* Sentential adverbials - can be place in front or at the end - "obviously" - "Thank you" - "You're welcome."
* Phonological aesthetic sense.
* Completion of a system - rounding it out - Given the beginnings of a system, how "complete" is it in a phonological sense - fleshing it out - but are such maps imbalanced - do they have holes and why?

Žmogus mąsto žodžiais ir sakiniais nes jisai mąsto ko tyliau, ko ramiau ir tai yra ko mažiau "triukšmingas" mąstymas. Panašiai su jauduliais, gyvename ko mažiau jaudulingais jauduliais. Užtat labai lengva klaidingai suprasti jausmų ar minčių teoriją jeigu kreipiame dėmesį į triukšmingiausius, kraštutinius reiškinius.

Vaikų ausimis suprasti kalbą - kaip susigaudyti, kaip sulaukti paaiškinimo. Galimybė klausti klausimus. Žodį gali pakartoti. Užtat paklausti. Creole kalbos: jidiš, anglų.

* Kalbai svarbūs įtampos balsai: Liepimas, aiškinimas, klausymas.
į:
Ištrintos 275-281 eilutės:
Origins of language
* Imitation - of people, animals, etc. Consider the usefulness of mimicking individuals. This is important for politics - "the political animal" (Aristotles) - for identifying and punishing cheaters, or rewarding assistantss, for establishing group unity. The intentionality foursome would support this.
* Interjections and exclamations.
*

Ištrintos 281-314 eilutės:
Sintaksės reiškiniai
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphora_(linguistics)|Anaphora]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreement_(linguistics)|Agreement]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antecedent-contained deletion | Antecedent-contained deletion]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_Object_Marking | Differential_Object_Marking]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_case|Case]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitic | Clitics]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_control|Control]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dummy pronoun | Dummy pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_verb | Ergative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existential_clause | Existential clause]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_expletive|Expletives]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_NP_shift | Heavy NP shift]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_copula|Inverse copula sentences]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_paradox | Movement paradox]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_gap | Parasitic gap]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-drop_language|Pro-drop]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising_(linguistics) | Raising]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_(grammar) | Reciprocal]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_pronoun | Reflexive pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verb | Reflexive verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unaccusative_verb | Unaccusative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wh-movement | Wh-movement]]



[+Notes+]

* Septynerybė sulygina visuomenės žodžius ir asmeninius turinius, nesuteikia pirmenybę vienai ar kitai.
* Dievas - "Spirit of understanding" - joint intentionality. Activity of learning. (Visuose padalinimuose iškyla).

* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_Role_Inventories | Belbin Team Inventory]] and other team role inventories.
* Tyla (nulybė) palaiko daugiaprasmybę.
* Alan Fiske "Structures of Social Life" 4 kinds of distribution
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 21:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 78-79 eilutės iš
į:
Pertvarkymai
* Fonologiją ir sintaksę derina seka
* Sintaksę ir semantiką derina medis
* Semantiką ir fonologiją derina tinklas
Pakeistos 114-116 eilutės iš
į:
* Group mind - pasąmonė - be sintaksės. Paskiras žmogus, šviesuolis - sintaksė.
* Xunzi apie ritualus, papročius. Niekas nenuspės, kas prigis, paplis, pasiseks. Tam reikia mąstyti, kaip vidutinybė, kaip visuomenės pasąmonė. O niekas nėra toks bukas.
Pakeistos 161-163 eilutės iš
į:
* Conceptual types
** Jackendoff conceptual types: Situation, Event, States, Object, Place, Property
Ištrintos 191-200 eilutės:

Jackendoff conceptual types: Situation, Event, States, Object, Place, Property

* Fonologiją ir sintaksę derina seka
* Sintaksę ir semantiką derina medis
* Semantiką ir fonologiją derina tinklas

Group mind - pasąmonė - be sintaksės. Paskiras žmogus, šviesuolis - sintaksė.

Xunzi apie ritualus, papročius. Niekas nenuspės, kas prigis, paplis, pasiseks. Tam reikia mąstyti, kaip vidutinybė, kaip visuomenės pasąmonė. O niekas nėra toks bukas.
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 21:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 108-110 eilutės iš
į:
* So the brain develops in parallel an internal model of sensual capacity and an external model of the real world.
* Sintaksė yra laisvė, laisva valia - semantika likimas.
Pakeistos 144-145 eilutės iš
į:
* Galimybe vienu metu mąstyti du srautus - klausytis kito minčių ir turėti savo mintis. Ketverybė, penkerybė, šešerybė derina du srautus. Laikas ir erdvė kalboje.
Pakeistos 153-155 eilutės iš
į:
* Conceptual punctuation.
** Hello - bendravimo skyrybos ženklai.
Pakeistos 178-193 eilutės iš







Galimybe vienu metu mąstyti du srautus - klausytis kito minčių ir turėti savo mintis
. Ketverybė, penkerybė, šešerybė derina du srautus. Laikas ir erdvė kalboje.

Saussure - A course in general linguistics.

Hello - bendravimo skyrybos ženklai.

so the brain develops in parallel an internal model of sensoual capacity and an external modek of the ral eorld

Sintaksė yra laisvė, laisva valia - semantika likimas.
į:
To study
* Saussure - A course in general linguistics
.


2017 lapkričio 15 d., 21:19 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 97-103 eilutės iš
į:
Purposes of language
* Language peculiarities (like irregular verbs) can distinguish whether people are insiders or outsiders of a society.
* Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change. diplomats say vagueness is an asset
* Politics let us live in larger groups - and the social networking co-evolved with the increase in the sign of our neocortex.
* The use of words (imitations) as symbols (substitutes,of meaning, of feeling, gifts) is a turning point.
Pridėtos 113-128 eilutės:
Jackendoff - Linear Grammar
* Start with what can be said by linking meaning with expression - before phonetics, morphology, syntax. And then see it evolve.
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - mappings between phonology and meaning - linear grammar - word and word order. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin | Pidgins]].
* Transition from pidgin to creole - adding syntactic and morphological principles.
* Klein and Perdue - late second language acquisition - semi-efficiency they call Basic Variety. No inflectional morphology, no sentential subordination, known characters freely ommitted, word order based on semantic roles: Agent before Action. (Ordering by the three-cycle.)
* Home Sign (Goldin-Meadow). Children invent rudimentary morphology. Known characters freely omitted. Object/Action distinction, not Noun/Verb. Word order probabilistic, semantically biased. No embedding. Properties of linear grammar.
* Village Sign Languages. Fairly substantial morphology. Little evidence for syntactic structure. No evidence for sentential embedding. Actor-Action order in 1-character sentences. Unreliable word order in 2- and 3-character sentences with two animate characters. Tendency to omit all but one character. Linear grammar.
* Processing strategies (Townsend & Bever) interpretive strategies - Actor precedes Action
* Good enough parsing - linear order and semantic plausibility.
* Agrammatic aphasics.
* Specific Language Impairment. (Heather van der Lely)
* Riau Indonesian (David Gil) - No syntactic parts of speech. No inflectional morphology. Known characters are freely ommitted. Subordination is expressed by parataxis - jamming sentences together. Free word order but semantic biases such as Actor precedes Action, Actions precede Patients. Makes use of a lot of pragmatics.
* Piraha (Dan Everett) Lots of morphology, a noun-verb distinction. Word order fairly fixed. No definite and indefinite articles, no plural marker, no inflectional morphology. Free omission of known characters. (Lacks recursion - subordinate clauses.)
* Linear grammar and Syntax grammar coexist - and compete? Like the unconscious and the conscious? Single meaning vs. ambiguous meaning.
Pakeistos 141-143 eilutės iš
į:
* Rašymu - bendraujame per laiko atstumą - per erdvės atstumą.
Pakeistos 145-147 eilutės iš
* Distinguishing subject (what we don't know about) and predicate (what we know about it).
į:
* Twosome: Subject and predicate
** Distinguishing subject (what we don't know
about) and predicate (what we know about it).
** Programavimo kalboje A=B. Subject (kas keičiasi) ir predicate (kas nesikeičia). Dvejybė
.
Pakeistos 175-197 eilutės iš
Purposes of language
* Language peculiarities (like irregular verbs) can distinguish whether people are insiders or outsiders of a society.
* Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change. diplomats say vagueness is an asset
* Politics let us live in larger groups - and the social networking co-evolved with the increase in the sign of our neocortex.
* The use of words (imitations) as symbols (substitutes,of meaning, of feeling, gifts) is a turning point.



Jackendoff
* Start with what can be said by linking meaning with expression - before phonetics, morphology, syntax. And then see it evolve.
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - mappings between phonology and meaning - linear grammar - word and word order. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin | Pidgins]].
* Transition from pidgin to creole - adding syntactic and morphological principles.
* Klein and Perdue - late second language acquisition - semi-efficiency they call Basic Variety. No inflectional morphology, no sentential subordination, known characters freely ommitted, word order based on semantic roles: Agent before Action. (Ordering by the three-cycle.)
* Home Sign (Goldin-Meadow). Children invent rudimentary morphology. Known characters freely omitted. Object/Action distinction, not Noun/Verb. Word order probabilistic, semantically biased. No embedding. Properties of linear grammar.
* Village Sign Languages. Fairly substantial morphology. Little evidence for syntactic structure. No evidence for sentential embedding. Actor-Action order in 1-character sentences. Unreliable word order in 2- and 3-character sentences with two animate characters. Tendency to omit all but one character. Linear grammar.
* Processing strategies (Townsend & Bever) interpretive strategies - Actor precedes Action
* Good enough parsing - linear order and semantic plausibility.
* Agrammatic aphasics.
* Specific Language Impairment. (Heather van der Lely)
* Riau Indonesian (David Gil) - No syntactic parts of speech. No inflectional morphology. Known characters are freely ommitted. Subordination is expressed by parataxis - jamming sentences together. Free word order but semantic biases such as Actor precedes Action, Actions precede Patients. Makes use of a lot of pragmatics.
* Piraha (Dan Everett) Lots of morphology, a noun-verb distinction. Word order fairly fixed. No definite and indefinite articles, no plural marker, no inflectional morphology. Free omission of known characters. (Lacks recursion - subordinate clauses.)
* Linear grammar and Syntax grammar coexist - and compete? Like the unconscious and the conscious? Single meaning vs. ambiguous meaning.
į:


Ištrintos 181-182 eilutės:
Rašymu - bendraujame per laiko atstumą - per erdvės atstumą.
Pakeista 206 eilutė iš:
Programavimo kalboje A=B. Subject (kas keičiasi) ir predicate (kas nesikeičia). Dvejybė.
į:
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 20:36 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 75-79 eilutės:
Conceptual language
* Įvardijimo laipsnyne (linksniuose) ieškome valios - bandome ją sukurti, tai gramatikos požiūris siejantis sintaksę ir semantiką. O pasakojimas kuria sintaksės požiūrį (asmenį, veikėją, židinį) ir rūpėjimas kuria semantikos požiūrį (reikalą).
* Linguistic epistemology: simplicity, generality and according with the facts.
Pridėta 97 eilutė:
Pakeistos 100-106 eilutės iš
į:
* Purely syntactic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to meaning. And purely semantic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to syntax.
* Pasąmonė yra boundaries, o sąmonė cycle. Primena ryšį tarp sintaksės ir semantikos. Kohomologija yra pragmatika.

Memory
* Look at regular and irregular verbs in terms of their word frequency.
* Six restructurings relate the unconscious (primary structure) and the conscious (secondary structure) - what we know (in memory) and what we don't know (our vantage points). Look for these restructurings in language, music, memory, brain, etc.!
Ištrinta 119 eilutė:
Pakeistos 123-126 eilutės iš


Chinese
(non-syntactic!) grammar rules ([[https://www.chineseboost.com/grammar/ | Chinese Boost grammar]])
į:
* Definite and indefinite articles - compare in English, Chinese, Lithuanian. Note that the same notion is available in all languages but expressed in different ways. And this relates to the nature of their syntax - topicality.

Basics of
Chinese (non-syntactic!) grammar rules ([[https://www.chineseboost.com/grammar/ | Chinese Boost grammar]])
Ištrintos 131-140 eilutės:
Definite and indefinite articles - compare in English, Chinese, Lithuanian. Note that the same notion is available in all languages but expressed in different ways. And this relates to the nature of their syntax - topicality.

Įvardijimo laipsnyne (linksniuose) ieškome valios - bandome ją sukurti, tai gramatikos požiūris siejantis sintaksę ir semantiką. O pasakojimas kuria sintaksės požiūrį (asmenį, veikėją, židinį) ir rūpėjimas kuria semantikos požiūrį (reikalą).

Purely syntactic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to meaning. And purely semantic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to syntax.

Look at regular and irregular verbs in terms of their word frequency.

Pasąmonė yra boundaries, o sąmonė cycle. Primena ryšį tarp sintaksės ir semantikos. Kohomologija yra pragmatika.
Pakeistos 137-140 eilutės iš
Linguistic epistemology: simplicity, generality and according with the facts.

Išnagrinėti: žodžiai kaip "under" padeda remtis žodžiais kurių pilnai nesuprantame, ir juos tuo pačiu gerai
suprasti.
į:
Aplinkybės
* Išnagrinėti
: žodžiai kaip "under" padeda remtis žodžiais kurių pilnai nesuprantame, ir juos tuo pačiu gerai suprasti.
Pridėtos 147-148 eilutės:
Pakeistos 155-156 eilutės iš
Memory
* Six restructurings relate the unconscious (primary structure) and the conscious (secondary structure) - what we know (in memory) and what we don't know (our vantage points). Look for these restructurings in language, music, memory, brain, etc.!
į:
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 20:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 22 eilutė iš:
* Unconscious synchronized movement [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162643/#pone.0107538-Wiltermuth1 | article]], [[https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-4473-8_17 | article]]
į:
* [[https://cogsci.stackexchange.com | Unconscious synchronized movement]] [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162643/#pone.0107538-Wiltermuth1 | article]], [[https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-4473-8_17 | article]]
Pakeistos 58-59 eilutės iš
į:
* Does syntax exist in dreams? What is the relationship between conscious and unconscious minds in dreams?
Pakeistos 90-115 eilutės iš







Palyginti lietuvių kalba: "Aš variuoju mašiną", "Mašiną vairuoju aš", ir t.t. ir anglų kalbą "I drive car" ir kinų kalbą
.

Does syntax exist in dreams?

Syntax makes it possible for a missing space to have meaning. Linear grammar can have a pause - a pregnant pause. But syntax can distinguish between "the cars" and simply "cars". (In this case, definite and indefinite.)

What is the relationship between conscious
and unconscious minds in dreams?

System 1 - the unconscious - uses linear grammar, and System 2 - the conscious - uses nonlinear grammar. Joint intentionality brings the two together so that we can think in two threads at one time - or an ambiguity of semantics and syntax.

The brain learns through moving in the real world for
that motion manifests syntax and that lwts it map and model semantic sensory feeling qu.alia with syntactic knowledge based on activity modes which are the atoms for syntax the possibilities for activiy the structure of the external real world

The mystery of language - native speakers are able to follow language rules without consciously being aware of them.

Our ability to rationalize - to recognize patterns - sometimes falsely. Children learn to use irregular words separately
(like am and are?) and only later may realize that they are related (?)


Syntax
į:
* The mystery of language - native speakers are able to follow language rules without consciously being aware of them.

Bringing together unconscious and conscious
* System 1 - the unconscious - uses linear grammar, and System 2 - the conscious - uses nonlinear grammar. Joint intentionality brings the two together so that we can think in two threads at one time - or an ambiguity of semantics
and syntax.

What syntax is
* Syntax makes it possible for a missing space to have meaning. Linear grammar can have a pause - a pregnant pause. But syntax can distinguish between "the cars" and simply "cars". (In this case, definite and indefinite.)
* The brain learns through moving in the real world for that motion manifests syntax and
that lets it map and model semantic sensory feeling qu.alia with syntactic knowledge based on activity modes which are the atoms for syntax the possibilities for activiy the structure of the external real world.
* Our ability to rationalize - to recognize patterns - sometimes falsely. Children learn to use irregular words separately (like am and are?) and only later may realize that they are related
(?)
Pakeistos 108-113 eilutės iš
https://cogsci.stackexchange.com unconscious synchronized movement
į:

Topics in syntax
* Distinguishing subject (what we don't know about) and predicate (what we know about it).
* Word order. Palyginti lietuvių kalba: "Aš vairuoju mašiną", "Mašiną vairuoju aš", ir t.t. ir anglų kalbą "I drive car" ir kinų kalbą.
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 19:45 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 10 eilutė iš:
Tirti kalbą apskritai:
į:
Tirti kalbą ir jos raidą apskritai:
Ištrintos 11-17 eilutės:
Tirti sintaksės atsiradimą:
* [[https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_syntactic_phenomena | Syntactic phenomena]]
* Microlanguages... industry, military, warehousing - shipping boxes, traffic signs
* Visual language
* Improvisational acting - children's play - constructing imagination
* Coding - programming languages - syntax and semantics
* Language of gestures.
Ištrinta 12 eilutė:
* [[Mintys/ŽodžiųDaryba | Žodžių daryba]]. Options for word creation, especially in Lithuanian.
Ištrintos 13-14 eilutės:

* Chinese radicals.
Ištrintos 14-19 eilutės:
* Memory aids
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics | Robotics]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory | Control theory]] - relating recurring activities.
* How the brain deals with recurring activities and "robotics".
* What is known about universals of language.
* Overview the many theories on the origins of language - they may all be partly true and supportive.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_ape_language | Great ape language]]
Pridėtos 16-21 eilutės:
* Kalba kuria mąstome mintyse. Ir kaip mąstome lygiagrečiai besiklausydami kito.
Kalbos kilmė
* Bendras tikslas - joint intentionality
* Overview the many theories on the origins of language - they may all be partly true and supportive.
* Improvisational acting - children's play - constructing imagination
* Gamestorming
Pridėtos 23-28 eilutės:
Tirti paprastą semantinę kalbą:
* Language of gestures.
* Microlanguages... industry, military, warehousing - shipping boxes, traffic signs
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_ape_language | Great ape language]]
Tirti semantiką
* Kaip sukuriame mintį ir kaip pagauname mintį.
Pridėtos 30-32 eilutės:
* Kokia mintis glūdi paskirame žodyje.
* Lietuvos Respublikos įstatymų vartojamų sąvokų žodynas.
Tirti sintaksės atsiradimą:
Pakeistos 34-40 eilutės iš
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Notably, the types of agreement. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese, especially for second language learners.
į:
* Chinese radicals.
* Coding - programming languages - syntax and semantics
* Memory aids - tai ką žinome tampa kuo nežinome
Tirti sintaksę
*
[[https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_syntactic_phenomena | Syntactic phenomena]]
* What is known about universals of language.
* Kalbos nerišlumo įvairovę ir priežastis.
Pakeista 42 eilutė iš:
* Relate to memory in the broadest sense, what can be retrieved from the unconscious, from language, from the world.
į:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Notably, the types of agreement. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese, especially for second language learners. Nemaloniausios klaidos.
Pakeistos 45-46 eilutės iš
* Lietuvos Respublikos įstatymų vartojamų sąvokų žodynas.
į:
* [[Mintys/ŽodžiųDaryba | Žodžių daryba]]. Options for word creation, especially in Lithuanian.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics | Robotics]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory | Control theory]] - relating recurring activities.
* How the brain deals with recurring activities and "robotics".
Atmintis
* Relate to memory in the broadest sense, what can be retrieved from the unconscious, from language, from the world
.
Pridėta 53 eilutė:
* Compare my divisions of joint intention with the findings from our workshop on language. How do the cognitive divisions relate to the communicative divisions?
Ištrinta 54 eilutė:
* Compare my divisions of joint intention with the findings from our workshop on language. How do the cognitive divisions relate to the communicative divisions?
2017 lapkričio 15 d., 13:49 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 10-12 eilutės iš
Tirti:
į:
Tirti kalbą apskritai:
* Childrens' development of language skills.
Tirti sintaksės atsiradimą
:
Pakeista 22 eilutė iš:
* Childrens' development of language skills.
į:
2017 lapkričio 14 d., 22:38 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 68 eilutė iš:
* Sintaksė skaido reikšmės vienetą, sakinį, į tai kas turi reikšmę (veiksnys, tema, reikalas) ir priskiriamą, išsakomą reikšmę (tarinys, aptarimas). Žodis gali turėti reikšmę
į:
* Sintaksė skaido reikšmės vienetą, sakinį, į tai kas turi reikšmę (veiksnys, tema, reikalas, substancija) ir priskiriamą, išsakomą reikšmę (tarinys, aptarimas). Žodis gali turėti reikšmę.
Pridėtos 70-72 eilutės:
* Semantika remiasi pragmatiniu santykiu, kaip kiekvienu atveju tiesiog paprasčiausia, kaip optimalu. O sintaksė remiasi aiškiomis taisyklėmis, ir nesprendžia paskiro atvejo, o sprendžia bendrai.
* Yra įmanoma kalbėti visai be sintaksės, tiesiog pabirais žodžiais, pasiremiant aplinkybėmis. Tai vadinama "tiesine gramatika".
* Sintaksė leidžia suvokti, kad kuris nors žodis nepasakytas, praleistas, ar tiesiog reikšmę papildo nepasakytas bet iš sintaksės suprastas žodis. Tokiais žodžiais gali būti, pavyzdžiui, asmenis reiškiantys įvardžiai arba praleisti artikulai.
Pridėtos 75-77 eilutės:
* Kiekviena kalba reikalauja laikytis kažkokio sunkiai pateisinamo tačiau viską siejančio dėsningumo. Priklausomai nuo kalbos, tai gali būti žodžio giminė; linksniai; daiktvardžių bei veiksmažodžių sąryšiai (semantika tampa nebe pragmatinis reikalas, o vos ne gramatinis reikalas); anglų kalboje - daiktavardžių apibrėžtumas ir neapibrėžtumas; kinų kalboje - "measure words".
* Aplinkybės (prielinksniai) dalykiškai išplečia tai, ko nežinome.
* Proto laukai - Fauconnier.
2017 lapkričio 14 d., 22:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 10 eilutė iš:
Consider:
į:
Tirti:
Pridėtos 61-78 eilutės:


[+Kalbos ypatumai+]

* Kalba tveria reikšmę.
* Kalba sieja du požiūrius: klausiančios, nežinančios sąmonės ir atsakančios, žinančios pasąmonės.
* Sąmonė mąsto medžiu, sintakse. Pasąmonė mąsto tinklu, semantika. Jųdviejų mąstymą seka sieja gramatika.
* Sintaksė skaido reikšmės vienetą, sakinį, į tai kas turi reikšmę (veiksnys, tema, reikalas) ir priskiriamą, išsakomą reikšmę (tarinys, aptarimas). Žodis gali turėti reikšmę
* Semantika suveda reikšmės vienetą, žodį. O ta mintis, ta reikšmė išsakoma gyvenimiškai, pragmatiškai, aplinkybėse: tai yra stalas, "stalas" reiškia va tai, vadiname "stalu" ir panašiai. Vadinas, žodis, kaip toks, neturi išsakytos reikšmės, bet reikšmė kaip tokia išsakoma tiktai paaiškinimu.
* Kalba remiasi atmintimi. O atmintis lengvai įsimena būtent tai, kam priskiriama laisva vieta smegenyse. Vadinasi, kai kuriems reiškiniams gyvenime smegenys yra paruošę laisvų plotų, užtat juo galima įsiminti net pirmu pažinimu. Ir būtent įsimename ir išgyvename ne pačius reiškinius, o tuos laisvus plotus, kad išgyvenome "kažką tokio", kad ir visai migloto ar net iš karto neįsidėmėtino. Užtat gali būti labai reikšmingi ir visam gyvenimui įsimintini kažkokie neaiškūs atsitikimai, susižvalgymai, pastebėjimai ir t.t. nes būtent tai tiko kuriam nors laisvam, paruoštam plotui. Ir tokiais išgyvenimais pažįstame tą plotą ir būtent jį įsimename ir juomi savaip atkuriame tuos reiškinius, gal visai neprimenančius tikrovę.
* Tad kalbose įprasta, kad svarbūs, dažnūs, anksti išmokstami reiškiniai gali būti visai nedėsningi, tuo tarpu, retesni reiškiniai būtinai yra dėsningi.





2017 lapkričio 14 d., 22:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 253-254 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antecedent-contained deletion Antecedent-contained deletion]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_Object_Marking Differential_Object_Marking]]
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antecedent-contained deletion | Antecedent-contained deletion]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_Object_Marking | Differential_Object_Marking]]
2017 lapkričio 14 d., 21:49 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 249-272 eilutės:

Sintaksės reiškiniai
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphora_(linguistics)|Anaphora]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreement_(linguistics)|Agreement]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antecedent-contained deletion Antecedent-contained deletion]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_Object_Marking Differential_Object_Marking]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_case|Case]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitic | Clitics]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_control|Control]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dummy pronoun | Dummy pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_verb | Ergative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existential_clause | Existential clause]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_expletive|Expletives]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_NP_shift | Heavy NP shift]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_copula|Inverse copula sentences]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_paradox | Movement paradox]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_gap | Parasitic gap]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-drop_language|Pro-drop]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising_(linguistics) | Raising]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_(grammar) | Reciprocal]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_pronoun | Reflexive pronoun]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verb | Reflexive verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unaccusative_verb | Unaccusative verb]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wh-movement | Wh-movement]]
2017 lapkričio 14 d., 14:32 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 14 eilutė:
* Improvisational acting - children's play - constructing imagination
2017 lapkričio 14 d., 00:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 148-149 eilutės:

Saussure - A course in general linguistics.
2017 lapkričio 14 d., 00:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 65 eilutė iš:
Syn
į:
Syntax makes it possible for a missing space to have meaning. Linear grammar can have a pause - a pregnant pause. But syntax can distinguish between "the cars" and simply "cars". (In this case, definite and indefinite.)
2017 lapkričio 13 d., 18:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 183-184 eilutės:

Syntactic phenomena include questions.
2017 lapkričio 13 d., 18:27 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 10-11 eilutės iš
Consider: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_syntactic_phenomena
į:
Consider:
* [[
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_syntactic_phenomena | Syntactic phenomena]]
Pridėta 21 eilutė:
* Dreams - and our use of language in them - and how the unconscious communicates with us.
Pridėtos 64-65 eilutės:

Syn
2017 lapkričio 13 d., 18:05 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 60-63 eilutės:

Does syntax exist in dreams?

What is the relationship between conscious and unconscious minds in dreams?
2017 lapkričio 13 d., 17:56 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 66-67 eilutės:

Our ability to rationalize - to recognize patterns - sometimes falsely. Children learn to use irregular words separately (like am and are?) and only later may realize that they are related (?)
2017 lapkričio 13 d., 17:50 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 64-65 eilutės:

The mystery of language - native speakers are able to follow language rules without consciously being aware of them.
2017 lapkričio 13 d., 16:04 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 10 eilutė iš:
Consider:
į:
Consider: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_syntactic_phenomena
2017 lapkričio 12 d., 21:47 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 90-91 eilutės:

Look at regular and irregular verbs in terms of their word frequency.
2017 lapkričio 09 d., 23:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 136-137 eilutės:

so the brain develops in parallel an internal model of sensoual capacity and an external modek of the ral eorld
2017 lapkričio 09 d., 23:20 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 62-64 eilutės:

The brain learns through moving in the real world for that motion manifests syntax and that lwts it map and model semantic sensory feeling qu.alia with syntactic knowledge based on activity modes which are the atoms for syntax the possibilities for activiy the structure of the external real world
2017 lapkričio 08 d., 22:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 207-209 eilutės:

* Kalbai svarbūs įtampos balsai: Liepimas, aiškinimas, klausymas.
2017 lapkričio 08 d., 21:48 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 204-206 eilutės:
Žmogus mąsto žodžiais ir sakiniais nes jisai mąsto ko tyliau, ko ramiau ir tai yra ko mažiau "triukšmingas" mąstymas. Panašiai su jauduliais, gyvename ko mažiau jaudulingais jauduliais. Užtat labai lengva klaidingai suprasti jausmų ar minčių teoriją jeigu kreipiame dėmesį į triukšmingiausius, kraštutinius reiškinius.

Vaikų ausimis suprasti kalbą - kaip susigaudyti, kaip sulaukti paaiškinimo. Galimybė klausti klausimus. Žodį gali pakartoti. Užtat paklausti. Creole kalbos: jidiš, anglų.
2017 lapkričio 08 d., 21:47 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 96-97 eilutės:

Išnagrinėti: žodžiai kaip "under" padeda remtis žodžiais kurių pilnai nesuprantame, ir juos tuo pačiu gerai suprasti.
2017 lapkričio 08 d., 21:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 43 eilutė:
* Žmonės (ir šimpanzės, nekaip orangutangai) turi apie ką kalbėti... apie ką? apie gamtą? jausmus? žmonių santykius?
2017 lapkričio 08 d., 19:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 86-87 eilutės:

Pasąmonė yra boundaries, o sąmonė cycle. Primena ryšį tarp sintaksės ir semantikos. Kohomologija yra pragmatika.
2017 lapkričio 06 d., 20:22 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 146-147 eilutės:

Programavimo kalboje A=B. Subject (kas keičiasi) ir predicate (kas nesikeičia). Dvejybė.
2017 lapkričio 06 d., 20:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 8-9 eilutės:
Kaip ima reikšti - nagrinėti skirtinguose lygmenyse - žodyje, frazėje, sakinyje, pastraipoje, rašinyje.
Pridėtos 83-84 eilutės:
Įvardijimo laipsnyne (linksniuose) ieškome valios - bandome ją sukurti, tai gramatikos požiūris siejantis sintaksę ir semantiką. O pasakojimas kuria sintaksės požiūrį (asmenį, veikėją, židinį) ir rūpėjimas kuria semantikos požiūrį (reikalą).
Pridėtos 130-143 eilutės:

Jackendoff conceptual types: Situation, Event, States, Object, Place, Property

* Fonologiją ir sintaksę derina seka
* Sintaksę ir semantiką derina medis
* Semantiką ir fonologiją derina tinklas

Group mind - pasąmonė - be sintaksės. Paskiras žmogus, šviesuolis - sintaksė.

Xunzi apie ritualus, papročius. Niekas nenuspės, kas prigis, paplis, pasiseks. Tam reikia mąstyti, kaip vidutinybė, kaip visuomenės pasąmonė. O niekas nėra toks bukas.

Qi zixingch qide hen kuai. Kartoja mintį, tai linear grammar. O čia "de" ir "hen" yra sintaksės elementai. "Local syntax". "Bottom-up syntax."

Reducing vagueness is a syntactic issue. Concreteness is semantic.
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 16:58 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 11 eilutė iš:
* Coding - programming
į:
* Coding - programming languages - syntax and semantics
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 15:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 160 eilutė iš:
* Separating terms: rules and data - hemispheres.
į:
* Separating terms: rules (instructions) and data - hemispheres. Ketverybė. Syntax lets instructions be considered as data (and vice versa).
Ištrinta 161 eilutė:
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 14:35 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 129 eilutė iš:
* Exceptions come first and rules come later for the less frequent. Maintenance of knowledge by recurrence. It if recurs regularly, then you can remember anything. But if it recurs rarely you need to relate it to a pattern.
į:
* Exceptions come first and rules come later for the less frequent. Maintenance of knowledge by recurrence. It if recurs regularly, then you can remember anything. But if it recurs rarely you need to relate it to a pattern. Multitrack.
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 14:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 18 eilutė:
* Memory aids
Pakeistos 129-130 eilutės iš
į:
* Exceptions come first and rules come later for the less frequent. Maintenance of knowledge by recurrence. It if recurs regularly, then you can remember anything. But if it recurs rarely you need to relate it to a pattern.
Pridėtos 157-162 eilutės:

* Expressing feelings is important for joint feelings - joint expectations. Acting out feelings and symbolic substitution. Ambiguity of "I" and "we".
* Use of sound symbolically in not-situated specific fashion.
* Separating terms: rules and data - hemispheres.
* Distinguish an item from a category - there is syntactic/semantic ambiguity.
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 14:20 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 32-33 eilutės iš
į:
* Lietuvos Respublikos įstatymų vartojamų sąvokų žodynas.
Pridėtos 159-171 eilutės:
Jackendoff. Foundations of Language.
* Levelt 1999 "Syntax is the poor man's semantics."
* Syntax is the conscious mind's top down structuring.
* Semantics is the bottom-up reasoning. Linear grammar.
* Syntax characterizes and organizes abstract concepts. It steps out.
* So language (and grammar) is the interaction of both.
* Distinguish syntax (from above) and grammar (where it meets with semantics).
* Baldwin effect - in evolution - relate to singing.
* Gender: for example, individual words - syntactic aspect of a word.
* Lithuanian-Spanish gender, English definite-indefinite, Chinese measure words - are syntactic activities that impose syntactic mindfulness.
* Sentential adverbials - can be place in front or at the end - "obviously" - "Thank you" - "You're welcome."
* Phonological aesthetic sense.
* Completion of a system - rounding it out - Given the beginnings of a system, how "complete" is it in a phonological sense - fleshing it out - but are such maps imbalanced - do they have holes and why?
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 14:15 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 116-127 eilutės:

Galimybe vienu metu mąstyti du srautus - klausytis kito minčių ir turėti savo mintis. Ketverybė, penkerybė, šešerybė derina du srautus. Laikas ir erdvė kalboje.

Rašymu - bendraujame per laiko atstumą - per erdvės atstumą.

Hello - bendravimo skyrybos ženklai.

Sintaksė yra laisvė, laisva valia - semantika likimas.

Požiūris į požiūrį į požiūrį: Lygmenis išsako: Sintaksė - pavidalas (pasakojimas, įvykis, įsimintinumas, kaip veikėjas bręsta - atsitokėjimas atvaizdu), gramatika - susitarimas (įvardijimas, reikšmė), semantika - turinys (pagrindimas, rūpėjimas, prasmė, įsijautimas-aplinkybė).
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 13:41 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 34 eilutė iš:
* Analyze how meaning is created on different levels - in the creation of words - in the unfolding of a sentence - in the unfolding of a paragraph - in the unfolding of a longer text. Analyze the meaning in a folk tale. Find other corpuses, for example, dialogue.
į:
* Analyze how meaning is created on different levels - in the creation of words - in the unfolding of a sentence - in the unfolding of a paragraph - in the unfolding of a longer text. Analyze the meaning in a folk tale. Find other corpuses, for example, dialogue. Analyze a Shakespeare play.
2017 lapkričio 05 d., 13:41 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 7-9 eilutės iš
*
* Think about art exhibit on the origins of language.
į:
Pakeistos 9-11 eilutės iš
* Microlanguages...
į:
* Microlanguages... industry, military, warehousing - shipping boxes, traffic signs
* Visual language
* Coding - programming
Pakeista 14 eilutė iš:
* Options for word creation, especially in Lithuanian.
į:
* [[Mintys/ŽodžiųDaryba | Žodžių daryba]]. Options for word creation, especially in Lithuanian.
Pridėtos 34-35 eilutės:
* Analyze how meaning is created on different levels - in the creation of words - in the unfolding of a sentence - in the unfolding of a paragraph - in the unfolding of a longer text. Analyze the meaning in a folk tale. Find other corpuses, for example, dialogue.
* Analyze and organize the various ways that words are created in Lithuanian.
Pridėtos 143-146 eilutės:

* Banguoja mintys ir jas lenkiame teigiamai.
2017 lapkričio 03 d., 21:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 65-66 eilutės:

https://cogsci.stackexchange.com unconscious synchronized movement
2017 lapkričio 03 d., 18:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 54 eilutė:
System 1 - the unconscious - uses linear grammar, and System 2 - the conscious - uses nonlinear grammar. Joint intentionality brings the two together so that we can think in two threads at one time - or an ambiguity of semantics and syntax.
2017 lapkričio 01 d., 21:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 93-95 eilutės:

Memory
* Six restructurings relate the unconscious (primary structure) and the conscious (secondary structure) - what we know (in memory) and what we don't know (our vantage points). Look for these restructurings in language, music, memory, brain, etc.!
2017 spalio 31 d., 13:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 31-32 eilutės iš
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_typology | Linguistic typology]] and also [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_contact | Language contact]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contrastive_analysis | Contrastive analysis]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_linguistics | Comparative linguistics]] - what are the dimensions considered?
Pridėta 36 eilutė:
* Why do some aspects of the understanding of grammar change in a person's life but others do not?
2017 spalio 31 d., 13:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 69-72 eilutės:

Definite and indefinite articles - compare in English, Chinese, Lithuanian. Note that the same notion is available in all languages but expressed in different ways. And this relates to the nature of their syntax - topicality.

Purely syntactic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to meaning. And purely semantic laws which are arbitrary when it comes to syntax.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:58 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 107-110 eilutės:

Database design mentality: half of the time on general rules, half the time on exceptions.

Grammar arises with restraints on word formation. Joint intentionality meant grammatical norms, a sense of what is grammatically correct.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:56 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 74-75 eilutės:

Linguistic epistemology: simplicity, generality and according with the facts.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 30 eilutė:
* Constraints on word formation, notably in Lithuanian, on what kinds of endings can be use, what kinds of accent patterns are used, etc. (compare to music) And phonetic constraints - use of tones, distinction of vowels and consonants, annunciation (compare to singing).
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:51 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 29 eilutė:
* Relate to memory in the broadest sense, what can be retrieved from the unconscious, from language, from the world.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:42 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 66 eilutė:
* Chinese rules are logical. Chinese tends to only indicate things once in a sentence.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:41 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 28 eilutė iš:
* Distinguish Chinese as a minimally syntactic language, English as a highly syntactic language (in terms of external structure) and Lithuanian as a highly syntactic language (in terms of morphology).
į:
* Distinguish Chinese as a minimally syntactic language, English as a highly syntactic language (in terms of external structure) and Lithuanian as a highly syntactic language (in terms of morphology). To what extent is there syntax in Chinese?
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 27 eilutė iš:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese, especially for second language learners.
į:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Notably, the types of agreement. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese, especially for second language learners.
Pakeista 65 eilutė iš:
* Aspect, not tense.
į:
* Aspect, not tense. Compare aspects: I will set off to Beijing. I will have set off to Beijing.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 27-29 eilutės iš
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese.
* Distinguish Chinese as a minimally syntactic language, English
as a highly syntactic language (in terms of external structure) and Lithuanian as a highly syntactic language (in terms of morphology).
į:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese, especially for second language learners.
* Distinguish Chinese
as a minimally syntactic language, English as a highly syntactic language (in terms of external structure) and Lithuanian as a highly syntactic language (in terms of morphology).
Pridėtos 60-65 eilutės:

Chinese (non-syntactic!) grammar rules ([[https://www.chineseboost.com/grammar/ | Chinese Boost grammar]])
* What precedes modifies what follows. (What is the presumption for word order in linear grammar?)
* Words do not change.
* Chinese is topic-prominent. (Puts the thing the sentence is about first.) English is subject prominent.
* Aspect, not tense.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:32 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 48 eilutė iš:
į:
Palyginti lietuvių kalba: "Aš variuoju mašiną", "Mašiną vairuoju aš", ir t.t. ir anglų kalbą "I drive car" ir kinų kalbą.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 28 eilutė:
* Distinguish Chinese as a minimally syntactic language, English as a highly syntactic language (in terms of external structure) and Lithuanian as a highly syntactic language (in terms of morphology).
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 27 eilutė iš:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules which should not be violated.
į:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar | grammar]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax | syntax]] which should not be violated. Study grammars of Lithuanian, English and Chinese.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:18 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 27 eilutė iš:
* Grammar: parts of speech and types of phrases and clauses.
į:
* Grammar: [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech | parts of speech]] and types of phrases and clauses. The most important rules which should not be violated.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:15 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 27 eilutė:
* Grammar: parts of speech and types of phrases and clauses.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:13 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 26 eilutė:
* Visual language: icon, symbol, structure
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:07 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 56 eilutė:
* So word construction is an essential part of syntax because it manipulates meaning and adds meaning to that which we need not understand.
2017 spalio 31 d., 12:05 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 55 eilutė:
* Algebra (and substitution) lets us solve equations even when we don't know what they mean. So the mathematical methods of proof distinguish between the first three (morphism, induction, algorithm construction) which are semantic in that they require us to know what we mean, and the second three (substitution, examination of cases, construction) which are syntactic in that they don't depend on what is meant.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:57 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 64 eilutė:
* [[http://donelaitis.vdu.lt/publikacijos/Dazninis_zodynas.pdf | Dažninis lietuvių kalbos žodynas]] ir [[http://donelaitis.vdu.lt/main.php?id=4&nr=2 | duomenys]]
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:44 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 61-63 eilutės:
Word frequency
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Most_common_words_in_English | Most common words in English]]
* [[http://hanzidb.org/character-list/by-frequency | Most common Chinese characters]]
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:32 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 25 eilutė:
* Most common words in Chinese, English, Lithuanian and other languages.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 54-58 eilutės:

Units
* Phonetically, a word is that which can be surrounded by spaces.
* Sentence is an independent, self-standing unit of syntax. It means that control can be handed over to another speaker.
* A clause expresses a thought and expresses that a moment of the present has elapsed.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 53 eilutė iš:
* So syntax deal with rules - but there are other constraints as well. Note also that the rules admit of freedom for each worker to do their own job and think their own job in their own way as they are able.
į:
* So syntax deal with rules - but there are other constraints as well. Note also that the rules admit of freedom for each worker to do their own job and think their own job in their own way as they are able. Thus there is no shared implementation.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 53 eilutė iš:
* So syntax deal with rules - but there are other constraints as well.
į:
* So syntax deal with rules - but there are other constraints as well. Note also that the rules admit of freedom for each worker to do their own job and think their own job in their own way as they are able.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:24 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 53 eilutė:
* So syntax deal with rules - but there are other constraints as well.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:14 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 50 eilutė:
* Syntax and rules allow labor to be divided. The "black boxes" of the Soviet military.
Pakeistos 52-54 eilutės iš
į:
* In mathematics, syntax is well-formedness and semantics is that which can be analyzed in terms of its truth or falsehood. Language without syntax is language without any rules. Syntax arises along with rules. And rules are an outgrowth of a joint perspective, a social contract.
Ištrintos 84-85 eilutės:

In mathematics, syntax is well-formedness and semantics is that which can be analyzed in terms of its truth or falsehood. Language without syntax is language without any rules. Syntax arises along with rules. And rules are an outgrowth of a joint perspective, a social contract.
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:13 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 44-53 eilutės iš
The use of words (imitations) as symbols (gifts, of meaning) is the turning point.

Politics let us live in larger groups -
and the social networking co-evolved with the increase in the sign of our neocortex.

Syntax lets you talk about things you don't understand.

Language peculiarities (like irregular verbs) can distinguish insiders and outsiders
.

Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change. diplomats say vagueness is an asset
į:



Syntax
* Syntax is about following rules and not breaking them. Whereas there are many other patterns driven by pragmatics
and semantics but they are optional and do not reflect rules that must not be broken. So it's important to distinguish between violations of grammar and nonsensical, incoherent or abnormal speaking.
* Syntax lets you talk about things you don't understand.
* Constructive hypothesis: shared structure of form and content of communication act
.

Purposes of language
* Language peculiarities (like irregular verbs) can distinguish whether people are insiders or outsiders of a society.
* Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change. diplomats say vagueness is an
asset
* Politics let us live in larger groups - and the social networking co-evolved with the increase in the sign of our neocortex.
* The use of words (imitations) as symbols (substitutes,of meaning, of feeling, gifts) is a turning point.
Ištrintos 71-72 eilutės:

constructive hypothesis shared structure of form and content of communication act
2017 spalio 31 d., 11:00 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 80-81 eilutės:

In mathematics, syntax is well-formedness and semantics is that which can be analyzed in terms of its truth or falsehood. Language without syntax is language without any rules. Syntax arises along with rules. And rules are an outgrowth of a joint perspective, a social contract.
2017 spalio 31 d., 10:53 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 47-48 eilutės:

Syntax lets you talk about things you don't understand.
2017 spalio 30 d., 21:51 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 89-90 eilutės:

Bullowa, M. (1975). When infant and adult communicate, how do they synchronize their behaviors. Organization of behavior in face-to-face interaction, 95-127.
2017 spalio 30 d., 21:47 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 24 eilutė iš:
* Unconscious synchronized movement [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162643/#pone.0107538-Wiltermuth1 | article]]
į:
* Unconscious synchronized movement [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162643/#pone.0107538-Wiltermuth1 | article]], [[https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-4473-8_17 | article]]
2017 spalio 30 d., 21:26 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 24 eilutė:
* Unconscious synchronized movement [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162643/#pone.0107538-Wiltermuth1 | article]]
2017 spalio 30 d., 15:58 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 86-87 eilutės:

Algebra of copyright - multiple parsers.
2017 spalio 30 d., 15:57 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 83-85 eilutės:
Jackendorf: Word as interface rule.

Rules - softwired is conscious - hardwired is unconscious.
2017 spalio 29 d., 13:15 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 18 eilutė iš:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics | Robotics]] - relating recurring activities.
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics | Robotics]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory | Control theory]] - relating recurring activities.
2017 spalio 29 d., 13:10 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 80-81 eilutės:

Jackendorf on how we learn semi-productivity. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_(linguistics) | Productivity]].
2017 spalio 29 d., 13:05 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 19 eilutė:
* How the brain deals with recurring activities and "robotics".
2017 spalio 29 d., 13:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 18 eilutė iš:
* Robotics - relating recurring activities.
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics | Robotics]] - relating recurring activities.
2017 spalio 29 d., 13:00 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 18 eilutė:
* Robotics - relating recurring activities.
Pridėta 33 eilutė:
* Focus on what we can learn from recurring activities.
2017 spalio 29 d., 11:18 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 67-68 eilutės:

Music as a link between linear grammar and recursive grammar. Music as the enrichment of a linear grammar. Alexanders "echoes". Parallel voices - drumming - overlapping patterns.
2017 spalio 29 d., 11:17 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 37 eilutė iš:
* Ambiguity is supported, developed and utilized in coordinating the activity, especially by silence.
į:
* Ambiguity is supported, developed and utilized in coordinating the activity, especially by silence. Dialectical ambiguity - truths of heart and world.
2017 spalio 29 d., 11:14 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 72-74 eilutės:

Categorization
* Language gender and other agreements come from "categorization" (as noted by Levi-Strauss) and for the sake of reducing vagueness.
2017 spalio 29 d., 09:35 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 21 eilutė iš:
* Music
į:
* Music - [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_theory | Music theory]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_psychology | Music psychology]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_musicology | Cognitive musicology]].
2017 spalio 29 d., 09:33 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 21-22 eilutės iš
į:
* Music
Pridėta 71 eilutė:
* Music affects the emotions by playing with the boundary between self and world. It distinguishes between the voice we identify with the self and the voice we identify with the world.
2017 spalio 29 d., 09:30 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 13 eilutė:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sign_language | Sign language]]
2017 spalio 29 d., 09:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 36 eilutė iš:
* Human language requires supporting two streams of thought at one time - listening to another and listening to ourselves - thus we are able to come up with questions - apes are only able to answer questions.
į:
* Human language requires supporting two streams of thought at one time - listening to another and listening to ourselves (dialectics) - thus we are able to come up with questions - apes are only able to answer questions.
2017 spalio 29 d., 09:25 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 36 eilutė:
* Human language requires supporting two streams of thought at one time - listening to another and listening to ourselves - thus we are able to come up with questions - apes are only able to answer questions.
2017 spalio 29 d., 09:11 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 65-68 eilutės iš
Do apes sing in unison? Apes don't seem to sing in unison.
į:
Singing in unison
* Do apes sing in unison? Apes don't seem to sing in unison.
* Singing identical twins.
2017 spalio 29 d., 08:53 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 19-20 eilutės iš
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_ape_language | Great ape language]]
Pridėtos 61-65 eilutės:

Great ape language
* Apes can learn many hundreds of words. But they don't use nonlinear grammar. They don't ask questions. Question asking by infants may come in wanting to know what is happening - to have a shared reality - and to ask for reappraisal.

Do apes sing in unison? Apes don't seem to sing in unison.
2017 spalio 29 d., 08:17 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 85 eilutė:
* Alan Fiske "Structures of Social Life" 4 kinds of distribution
2017 spalio 29 d., 06:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 34 eilutė iš:
* Ambiguity is supported, developed and utilized in coordinating the activity.
į:
* Ambiguity is supported, developed and utilized in coordinating the activity, especially by silence.
2017 spalio 29 d., 06:42 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 34-35 eilutės iš
į:
* Ambiguity is supported, developed and utilized in coordinating the activity.
Pridėta 84 eilutė:
* Tyla (nulybė) palaiko daugiaprasmybę.
2017 spalio 28 d., 21:00 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 54-56 eilutės:
* Riau Indonesian (David Gil) - No syntactic parts of speech. No inflectional morphology. Known characters are freely ommitted. Subordination is expressed by parataxis - jamming sentences together. Free word order but semantic biases such as Actor precedes Action, Actions precede Patients. Makes use of a lot of pragmatics.
* Piraha (Dan Everett) Lots of morphology, a noun-verb distinction. Word order fairly fixed. No definite and indefinite articles, no plural marker, no inflectional morphology. Free omission of known characters. (Lacks recursion - subordinate clauses.)
* Linear grammar and Syntax grammar coexist - and compete? Like the unconscious and the conscious? Single meaning vs. ambiguous meaning.
2017 spalio 28 d., 20:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 45 eilutė iš:
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - linear grammar - word and word order. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin | Pidgins]].
į:
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - mappings between phonology and meaning - linear grammar - word and word order. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin | Pidgins]].
Pakeistos 49-53 eilutės iš
* Village Sign Languages. Fairly substantial morphology. Little evidence for syntactic structure. No evidence for sentential embedding. Actor-Action order in 1-character sentences. Unreliable word order in 2- and 3-character sentences with two animate characters. Tendency to omit all but one character.
į:
* Village Sign Languages. Fairly substantial morphology. Little evidence for syntactic structure. No evidence for sentential embedding. Actor-Action order in 1-character sentences. Unreliable word order in 2- and 3-character sentences with two animate characters. Tendency to omit all but one character. Linear grammar.
* Processing strategies (Townsend & Bever) interpretive strategies - Actor precedes Action
* Good enough parsing - linear order and semantic plausibility.
* Agrammatic aphasics.
* Specific Language Impairment. (Heather van der Lely)
2017 spalio 28 d., 20:51 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 49 eilutė:
* Village Sign Languages. Fairly substantial morphology. Little evidence for syntactic structure. No evidence for sentential embedding. Actor-Action order in 1-character sentences. Unreliable word order in 2- and 3-character sentences with two animate characters. Tendency to omit all but one character.
2017 spalio 28 d., 20:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 48 eilutė:
* Home Sign (Goldin-Meadow). Children invent rudimentary morphology. Known characters freely omitted. Object/Action distinction, not Noun/Verb. Word order probabilistic, semantically biased. No embedding. Properties of linear grammar.
2017 spalio 28 d., 20:37 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 45-47 eilutės iš
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - linear grammar - word and word order
į:
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - linear grammar - word and word order. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin | Pidgins]].
* Transition from pidgin to creole - adding syntactic and morphological principles.
* Klein and Perdue - late second language acquisition - semi-efficiency they call Basic Variety. No inflectional morphology, no sentential subordination, known characters freely ommitted, word order based on semantic roles: Agent before Action. (Ordering by the three-cycle.)
2017 spalio 28 d., 20:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 45 eilutė iš:
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language.
į:
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language - linear grammar - word and word order
2017 spalio 28 d., 20:29 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 42-45 eilutės:

Jackendoff
* Start with what can be said by linking meaning with expression - before phonetics, morphology, syntax. And then see it evolve.
* Derek Bickerton - Protolanguage, relic of early stages of hominid language.
2017 spalio 28 d., 18:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 33 eilutė:
* Activity is the "thing" that we are representing with icons, indexes and symbols.
2017 spalio 28 d., 16:17 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 1 eilutė iš:
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Draft | Draft]]
į:
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Abstract | Abstract]]
2017 spalio 28 d., 16:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 65-66 eilutės:

* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_Role_Inventories | Belbin Team Inventory]] and other team role inventories.
2017 spalio 28 d., 14:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 13 eilutė:
* Options for word creation, especially in Lithuanian.
2017 spalio 28 d., 13:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 62-63 eilutės iš
Septynerybė sulygina visuomenės žodžius ir asmeninius turinius, nesuteikia pirmenybę vienai ar kitai.
į:
* Septynerybė sulygina visuomenės žodžius ir asmeninius turinius, nesuteikia pirmenybę vienai ar kitai.
* Dievas - "Spirit of understanding" - joint intentionality. Activity of learning. (Visuose padalinimuose iškyla).
2017 spalio 27 d., 14:20 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 39-41 eilutės iš
Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change.
į:
Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change. diplomats say vagueness is an asset

constructive hypothesis shared structure of form and content of communication act
2017 spalio 27 d., 13:55 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 38-39 eilutės:

Pinker - two level speach - nonliteral language - get the message across without leaning on status - this allows for role change.
2017 spalio 27 d., 13:33 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 36-37 eilutės:

Language peculiarities (like irregular verbs) can distinguish insiders and outsiders.
2017 spalio 27 d., 13:28 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 35 eilutė iš:
į:
Politics let us live in larger groups - and the social networking co-evolved with the increase in the sign of our neocortex.
2017 spalio 27 d., 13:20 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 23-24 eilutės:
>><<
Pridėtos 32-33 eilutės:

The use of words (imitations) as symbols (gifts, of meaning) is the turning point.
2017 spalio 27 d., 12:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 3-4 eilutės iš
į:
>>bgcolor=#FFFFC0<<
Pridėtos 19-22 eilutės:
Questions:
* Compare my divisions of joint intention with the findings from our workshop on language. How do the cognitive divisions relate to the communicative divisions?
* Are there people who don't think in words? Example: people who don't talk to people in their minds.
Pakeistos 31-33 eilutės iš
Questions:
* Are there people who don't think in words? Example: people who don't talk to people in their minds.
į:
Pakeistos 36-37 eilutės iš
* Imitation - of people, animals, etc. Consider the usefulness of mimicking individuals. This is important for politics - "the political animal" (Aristotles) - for identifying and punishing cheaters, or rewarding assistantss, for establishing group unity.
į:
* Imitation - of people, animals, etc. Consider the usefulness of mimicking individuals. This is important for politics - "the political animal" (Aristotles) - for identifying and punishing cheaters, or rewarding assistantss, for establishing group unity. The intentionality foursome would support this.
* Interjections and exclamations
.
2017 spalio 27 d., 12:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 32 eilutė:
* Imitation - of people, animals, etc. Consider the usefulness of mimicking individuals. This is important for politics - "the political animal" (Aristotles) - for identifying and punishing cheaters, or rewarding assistantss, for establishing group unity.
2017 spalio 27 d., 12:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 16-32 eilutės:
* Overview the many theories on the origins of language - they may all be partly true and supportive.

[+Main ideas+]

Main ideas:
* Language works by reducing vagueness.
* Language serves us externally in coordinating actions.
* Language serves us internally as mirroring our actions.
* Language implements a duality which balances a community's words and an individual's meanings.

Questions:
* Are there people who don't think in words? Example: people who don't talk to people in their minds.

[+Data+]

Origins of language
*
2017 spalio 27 d., 12:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 5 eilutė:
* Listen to videos about the origins of language.
Ištrinta 6 eilutė:
*
Pakeistos 27-29 eilutės iš
į:
[+Notes+]

Septynerybė sulygina visuomenės žodžius ir asmeninius turinius, nesuteikia pirmenybę vienai ar kitai.
2017 spalio 26 d., 22:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 21-23 eilutės:

Language of gestures
* [[https://www.slideshare.net/melodeepop/38-gestures-of-body-language | 38 gestures]]
2017 spalio 26 d., 22:10 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 19-21 eilutės iš

į:
Basics of Chinese
* [[http://www.acsu.nl/files/pdf/NewPracticalChinese/practicalchineseT1.pdf | New Practical Chinese Reader]]






------------------------------------
2017 spalio 26 d., 15:20 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 1-38 eilutės iš
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Draft | Draft]]
į:
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Draft | Draft]]


To do...
*
*
* Think about art exhibit on the origins of language.

Consider:
* Microlanguages...
* Language of gestures.
* Basic language for fluency.
* Childrens' development of language skills.
* Chinese radicals.
* What is known about universals of language.






[+Abstract+]

Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-26, 2017.

[+Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?+]

We explore how we can derive various aspects of language by considering its original purpose to be the reduction of vagueness in order to coordinate activity.

Generally, in discourse, there is a remarkable agreement as to which words and sentences are spoken. Traditionally, linguists have supposed that language therefore conveys meaning through assemblies of well defined terms. More broadly, analytic philosophy, and more specifically, cognitive linguistics, have held such an outlook, which we argue is implausible, psychologically, phenomenologically and pragmatically.

Psychologically, the unfolding sense of meaning which we experience only loosely matches the flow of words that we speak and hear. Phenomenologically, speaker and listener are quite disconnected in what they personally feel. Indeed, thinking itself is extremely vague. And, pragmatically, people need not agree on what their terms actually mean, nor know themselves, for that matter.

Cognitive linguistics has reconsidered language in terms of thinking and so has developed an understanding of cognitive frameworks. However, these frameworks are still discussed from the prevailing point of view of assembling items. Thus, Langacker (2008) considers how we may conceptualize a drinking glass as a space, shape, container, instrument, material and so on.
Instead, we suppose that the purpose of language is to coordinate activity. Thus we conceive of a world in which what is well defined are recurring activities. We pick things up and set them down; we drink liquids; we serve them to others. It is the recurring activity which determines what a "drinking glass" might mean for us. For example, we may be told to clean the glasses in the sink but leave the plates. Thus we have an activity of distinguishing glasses from plates. The implementation of such an activity can be particular to any individual. There need be no definition of what a "glass" is, nor what properties it has, but rather there is an activity of selecting glasses, which may lead to an ad hoc concept, or not. Architect Christopher Alexander (1979) has described how recurring activity evokes structure, and structure channels activity, yielding patterns - general "rules of thumb" - which come together in pattern languages. We can apply his thinking to linguistics.

The goal of language then can be to reduce the general vagueness of thinking, by a variety of strategies, for the purpose of coordinating activity, old and new. This is compatible with Tomasello's (2016) concept of joint intentionality. Working together with others, we must leverage general models of intention, attention, and serving the interests of others, for example, by appreciating status, as in who submits to whom. We must punctuate our actions, much as if they were sentences. Some strategies can be most abstract, such as dividing the vagueness of our minds into two perspectives, as when distinguishing construal and content. Other strategies can be familiar to us as transformations of our own self-identity. Thus we overview strategies which help us coordinate activity and we show what they might variously ground to make language possible.
2017 spalio 26 d., 15:18 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 1-15 eilutės iš
Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-26, 2017.

[+Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?+]

We explore how we can derive various aspects of language by considering its original purpose to be the reduction of vagueness in order to coordinate activity.

Generally, in discourse, there is a remarkable agreement as to which words and sentences are spoken. Traditionally, linguists have supposed that language therefore conveys meaning through assemblies of well defined terms. More broadly, analytic philosophy, and more specifically, cognitive linguistics, have held such an outlook, which we argue is implausible, psychologically, phenomenologically and pragmatically.

Psychologically, the unfolding sense of meaning which we experience only loosely matches the flow of words that we speak and hear. Phenomenologically, speaker and listener are quite disconnected in what they personally feel. Indeed, thinking itself is extremely vague. And, pragmatically, people need not agree on what their terms actually mean, nor know themselves, for that matter.

Cognitive linguistics has reconsidered language in terms of thinking and so has developed an understanding of cognitive frameworks. However, these frameworks are still discussed from the prevailing point of view of assembling items. Thus, Langacker (2008) considers how we may conceptualize a drinking glass as a space, shape, container, instrument, material and so on.
Instead, we suppose that the purpose of language is to coordinate activity. Thus we conceive of a world in which what is well defined are recurring activities. We pick things up and set them down; we drink liquids; we serve them to others. It is the recurring activity which determines what a "drinking glass" might mean for us. For example, we may be told to clean the glasses in the sink but leave the plates. Thus we have an activity of distinguishing glasses from plates. The implementation of such an activity can be particular to any individual. There need be no definition of what a "glass" is, nor what properties it has, but rather there is an activity of selecting glasses, which may lead to an ad hoc concept, or not. Architect Christopher Alexander (1979) has described how recurring activity evokes structure, and structure channels activity, yielding patterns - general "rules of thumb" - which come together in pattern languages. We can apply his thinking to linguistics.

The goal of language then can be to reduce the general vagueness of thinking, by a variety of strategies, for the purpose of coordinating activity, old and new. This is compatible with Tomasello's (2016) concept of joint intentionality. Working together with others, we must leverage general models of intention, attention, and serving the interests of others, for example, by appreciating status, as in who submits to whom. We must punctuate our actions, much as if they were sentences. Some strategies can be most abstract, such as dividing the vagueness of our minds into two perspectives, as when distinguishing construal and content. Other strategies can be familiar to us as transformations of our own self-identity. Thus we overview strategies which help us coordinate activity and we show what they might variously ground to make language possible.
į:
[[20171124CoordinatingActivity-Draft | Draft]]
2017 rugsėjo 16 d., 11:06 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 1-15 eilutės:
Submitted for [[https://philevents.org/event/show/35722 | Cognition and Language]], Brno, Czechia, November 24-26, 2017.

[+Could the Basis for Language Be the Reduction of Vagueness In Order to Coordinate Activity?+]

We explore how we can derive various aspects of language by considering its original purpose to be the reduction of vagueness in order to coordinate activity.

Generally, in discourse, there is a remarkable agreement as to which words and sentences are spoken. Traditionally, linguists have supposed that language therefore conveys meaning through assemblies of well defined terms. More broadly, analytic philosophy, and more specifically, cognitive linguistics, have held such an outlook, which we argue is implausible, psychologically, phenomenologically and pragmatically.

Psychologically, the unfolding sense of meaning which we experience only loosely matches the flow of words that we speak and hear. Phenomenologically, speaker and listener are quite disconnected in what they personally feel. Indeed, thinking itself is extremely vague. And, pragmatically, people need not agree on what their terms actually mean, nor know themselves, for that matter.

Cognitive linguistics has reconsidered language in terms of thinking and so has developed an understanding of cognitive frameworks. However, these frameworks are still discussed from the prevailing point of view of assembling items. Thus, Langacker (2008) considers how we may conceptualize a drinking glass as a space, shape, container, instrument, material and so on.
Instead, we suppose that the purpose of language is to coordinate activity. Thus we conceive of a world in which what is well defined are recurring activities. We pick things up and set them down; we drink liquids; we serve them to others. It is the recurring activity which determines what a "drinking glass" might mean for us. For example, we may be told to clean the glasses in the sink but leave the plates. Thus we have an activity of distinguishing glasses from plates. The implementation of such an activity can be particular to any individual. There need be no definition of what a "glass" is, nor what properties it has, but rather there is an activity of selecting glasses, which may lead to an ad hoc concept, or not. Architect Christopher Alexander (1979) has described how recurring activity evokes structure, and structure channels activity, yielding patterns - general "rules of thumb" - which come together in pattern languages. We can apply his thinking to linguistics.

The goal of language then can be to reduce the general vagueness of thinking, by a variety of strategies, for the purpose of coordinating activity, old and new. This is compatible with Tomasello's (2016) concept of joint intentionality. Working together with others, we must leverage general models of intention, attention, and serving the interests of others, for example, by appreciating status, as in who submits to whom. We must punctuate our actions, much as if they were sentences. Some strategies can be most abstract, such as dividing the vagueness of our minds into two perspectives, as when distinguishing construal and content. Other strategies can be familiar to us as transformations of our own self-identity. Thus we overview strategies which help us coordinate activity and we show what they might variously ground to make language possible.

Naujausi pakeitimai


Introduction E9F5FC

Understandable FFFFFF

Questions FFFFC0

Notes EEEEEE

  • 维基百科
  • 影片
  • 科学期刊文章
  • 读物

Edit right bar

Puslapis paskutinį kartą pakeistas 2017 lapkričio 25 d., 14:55
Tweet