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Andrius Kulikauskas

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Introduction E9F5FC

Understandable FFFFFF

Questions FFFFC0

Notes EEEEEE

Software

Book.BiologyDiscovery istorija

Paslėpti nežymius pakeitimus - Rodyti galutinio teksto pakeitimus

2020 liepos 02 d., 23:34 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 102-104 eilutės:

Selected introduction of species
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Dung_Beetle_Project | Australian Dung Beetle Project]] Dung accumulated upon introduction of cattle. Various species of dung beetles were therefore selected and introduced in Australia, studying their effects on soil quality, fly control, worm control. Also, researchers in South Africa, where there are hundreds of species of dung beetle, worked to identify species that would match 8 selection criteria. Beetle collection surveys were undertaken to understand the environmental conditions preferred by different species. Habitat specifity matching proved important in achieving success.
2020 liepos 02 d., 23:23 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 98 eilutė:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosphere_(aquarium) | Ecosphere]] ''Freshwater closed systems are often attempted by nature hobbyists and as experimental projects or demonstrations for biology classes. These require nothing more than a large glass jar with an airtight lid, a few cups of lake or river water, and mud or other substrate from the same body of water. Kept indoors at room temperatures, with exposure to sunlight from a window, such systems have been found to contain living organisms even after several decades. The original level of diversity always falls drastically, sometimes exhibiting interesting patterns of population flux and extinction. Multicellular organisms fare poorly. Eventually an equilibrium of micro-organisms is established.''
2020 liepos 02 d., 23:17 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 98-100 eilutės:

Simulation of an environment
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisyworld | Daisyworld]] A computer simulation of a hypothetical world which mimics elements of the Earth-Sun system to show the plausibility of the Gaia hypothesis. Daisyworld has two varieties of daisies, one which reflects light and one which absorbs light. The combination maintains an almost constant temperature despite changes in the power of the sun's rays.
2020 liepos 02 d., 23:09 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 95-96 eilutės iš
Examining the extent of self-sustainability of a closed system
į:
Examining the capabilities for self-sustainability of a closed system
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioregenerative_life_support_system | Bioregenerative life support system]]
2020 liepos 02 d., 23:07 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 96 eilutė iš:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuegong-1 | Yuegong-1]] is a Chinese research facility for developing a moonbase that recycled oxygen, water, food, waste, etc.
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuegong-1 | Yuegong-1]] is a Chinese research facility for developing a moonbase that recycled oxygen, water, food, waste, etc. Yellow mealworms were grown for protein but were met with resistance by Western astronauts.
2020 liepos 02 d., 23:04 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 92-96 eilutės iš
[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronosequence | Chronosequence]] Comparing similar ecological sites that represent different ages in a process of change such as in ecological succession, for example, after fires. As a glacier retreats, the distance from the nose of the glacier can be used as a proxy for age.
į:
Comparing ecosystems
*
[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronosequence | Chronosequence]] Comparing similar ecological sites that represent different ages in a process of change such as in ecological succession, for example, after fires. As a glacier retreats, the distance from the nose of the glacier can be used as a proxy for age.

Examining the extent of self-sustainability of a closed system
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuegong-1 | Yuegong-1]] is a Chinese research facility for developing a moonbase that recycled oxygen, water, food, waste, etc
.
2020 liepos 02 d., 22:59 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 91-92 eilutės:

[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronosequence | Chronosequence]] Comparing similar ecological sites that represent different ages in a process of change such as in ecological succession, for example, after fires. As a glacier retreats, the distance from the nose of the glacier can be used as a proxy for age.
2020 liepos 01 d., 14:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 89-90 eilutės:

* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-air_concentration_enrichment | Free-air concentration enrichment]] Releasing CO2 in a natural competitive environment, thus maintaining high levels of CO2, and then measuring percentage increased growth compared to control group.
2020 liepos 01 d., 13:58 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 87 eilutė:
Extinction and nonextinction in contrived environment
2020 liepos 01 d., 13:57 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 86-87 eilutės:

* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huffaker%27s_mite_experiment | Huffaker's mite experiment]] Contrived world with one species of prey mites and one species of predatory mites. Variation of potential for dispersion in a contrived environment leads to a variation of population dynamics for predator and prey. An optimal environment yields oscillations in populations and a nonoptimal environment yields extinctions.
2020 birželio 23 d., 13:01 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 83-85 eilutės:

Tagging animals
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagging_of_Pacific_Predators | Tagging of Pacific Predators]] The tagging of 22 marine species belonging to 2,000 animals. Tags may be surgically implanted and archive various parameters. Tags may be removed later. Or tags may self-release and transmits data to a satellite. Air-breathing marine animals may carry an antenna. Tags can record information on pressure, light, internal and external body temperature, speed of travel. Tags provide information on migration routes and ecosystems.
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:48 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 82-85 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment: Background]] "With Richard H.P. Sia, Dawson developed a method of transforming bacteria in vitro (rather than in vivo as Griffith had done)"
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment: Background]] "With Richard H.P. Sia, Dawson developed a method of transforming bacteria in vitro (rather than in vivo as Griffith had done)"

Need to sort
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hershey%E2%80%93Chase_experiment | Hershey-Chase experiment]]
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:46 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 61-63 eilutės:

Identify by consistent proportions of parts
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] Chemical analysis showed that the proportions of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in this active portion were consistent with the chemical composition of DNA.
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:45 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 47-60 eilutės:

Sequence of extractions
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] "The purification procedure Avery undertook consisted of first killing the bacteria with heat and extracting the saline-soluble components. Next, the protein was precipitated out using chloroform and the polysaccharide capsules were hydrolyzed with an enzyme. An immunological precipitation caused by type-specific antibodies was used to verify the complete destruction of the capsules. Then, the active portion was precipitated out by alcohol fractionation, resulting in fibrous strands that could be removed with a stirring rod."

Extracting a suspected agent
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] "The purification procedure Avery undertook consisted of first killing the bacteria with heat and extracting the saline-soluble components."
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] Then, the active portion was precipitated out by alcohol fractionation, resulting in fibrous strands that could be removed with a stirring rod.

Destroying candidate agents
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] "Next, the protein was precipitated out using chloroform and the polysaccharide capsules were hydrolyzed with an enzyme."

Use causality to verify the presence or absence of a substance
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] "An immunological precipitation caused by type-specific antibodies was used to verify the complete destruction of the capsules."
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment]] Is the substance destroyed or not by the testing agents? "To show that it was DNA rather than some small amount of RNA, protein, or some other cell component that was responsible for transformation, Avery and his colleagues used a number of biochemical tests. They found that trypsin, chymotrypsin and ribonuclease (enzymes that break apart proteins or RNA) did not affect it, but an enzyme preparation of "deoxyribonucleodepolymerase" (a crude preparation, obtainable from a number of animal sources, that could break down DNA) destroyed the extract's transforming power."
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:22 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 37-39 eilutės:

Classification by biologically evoked response
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment: Background]] "Pneumococcus is characterized by smooth colonies which have a polysaccharide capsule that induces antibody formation; the different types are classified according to their immunological specificity."
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:21 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 59-62 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ex_vivo | Ex vivo]] "Out of the living."
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ex_vivo | Ex vivo]] "Out of the living

Moving from in vivo to in vitro
* [[https://en
.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment: Background]] "With Richard H.P. Sia, Dawson developed a method of transforming bacteria in vitro (rather than in vivo as Griffith had done)"
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:19 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 43-59 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_stain | Gram stain]] Classify bacteria into two groups as to whether they have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall that retains the primary stain, or whether they have a thinner wall for which the primary stain can be washed out, leaving only the counterstain which stains everything. Note here the use of the washing out.
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_stain | Gram stain]] Classify bacteria into two groups as to whether they have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall that retains the primary stain, or whether they have a thinner wall for which the primary stain can be washed out, leaving only the counterstain which stains everything. Note here the use of the washing out.

Isolate from surroundings
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro | In vitro]] "In glass". Study in glassware.
* "Examples of in vitro studies include: the isolation, growth and identification of cells derived from multicellular organisms (in cell or tissue culture); subcellular components (e.g. mitochondria or ribosomes); cellular or subcellular extracts (e.g. wheat germ or reticulocyte extracts); purified molecules (such as proteins, DNA, or RNA); and the commercial production of antibiotics and other pharmaceutical products."
* "Viruses, which only replicate in living cells, are studied in the laboratory in cell or tissue culture, and many animal virologists refer to such work as being in vitro to distinguish it from in vivo work in whole animals."
* "Polymerase chain reaction is a method for selective replication of specific DNA and RNA sequences in the test tube."
* "Protein purification involves the isolation of a specific protein of interest from a complex mixture of proteins, often obtained from homogenized cells or tissues."
* "In vitro fertilization is used to allow spermatozoa to fertilize eggs in a culture dish before implanting the resulting embryo or embryos into the uterus of the prospective mother."
* "In vitro diagnostics refers to a wide range of medical and veterinary laboratory tests that are used to diagnose diseases and monitor the clinical status of patients using samples of blood, cells, or other tissues obtained from a patient."
* "In vitro testing has been used to characterize specific adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes of drugs or general chemicals inside a living organism; for example, Caco-2 cell experiments can be performed to estimate the absorption of compounds through the lining of the gastrointestinal tract; The partitioning of the compounds between organs can be determined to study distribution mechanisms; Suspension or plated cultures of primary hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cell lines (HepG2, HepaRG) can be used to study and quantify metabolism of chemicals.[6] These ADME process parameters can then be integrated into so called "physiologically based pharmacokinetic models" or PBPK."

Study within surroundings
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vivo | In vivo]] "Within the living."

Biopsies
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ex_vivo | Ex vivo]] "Out of the living."
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:05 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 31 eilutė:
* Can one type change into another type? And how?
2020 birželio 23 d., 12:04 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 36-38 eilutės:

Growing a biological responder
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment | Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment: Background]] "With the development of serological typing, medical researchers were able to sort bacteria into different strains, or types. When a person or test animal (e.g., a mouse) is inoculated with a particular type, an immune response ensues, generating antibodies that react specifically with antigens on the bacteria. Blood serum containing the antibodies can then be extracted and applied to cultured bacteria. The antibodies will react with other bacteria of the same type as the original inoculation."
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:59 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 35 eilutė iš:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quellung_reaction | Quellung reaction]] Make distinctions in strains of bacteria visible. Antibodies bind to a bacterial capsule and make it opaque and visible under a microscope.
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quellung_reaction | Quellung reaction]] (Serological typing) Make distinctions in strains of bacteria visible. Antibodies bind to a bacterial capsule and make it opaque and visible under a microscope.
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:54 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 30-32 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffith%27s_experiment | Griffith's experiment]]
į:
Transformative ingredient
* Two ingredients in combination yield a result that neither would by itself.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffith%27s_experiment | Griffith's experiment]] Injecting mice with a combination of a nonvirulent strain and the remains of a heat-destroyed virulent strain killed the mice and yielded both the nonvirulent strain and the virulent strain. Thus the dead strain yet had a "transforming principle" that transformed the nonvirulent strain.
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 36-37 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_stain | Gram stain]] Classify bacteria into two groups as to whether they have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall that retains the primary stain, or whether they have a thinner wall for which the primary stain can be washed out, leaving only the counterstain which stains everything. Thus here we make every cell distinguishable (with the counterstain) and then distinguish certain cells (which retain the primary stain when it is washed out).
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counterstain | Counterstain]] We make every cell distinguishable (with the counterstain) and then distinguish certain cells (which retain the primary stain).
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_stain | Gram
stain]] Classify bacteria into two groups as to whether they have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall that retains the primary stain, or whether they have a thinner wall for which the primary stain can be washed out, leaving only the counterstain which stains everything. Note here the use of the washing out.
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:29 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 32 eilutė:
Distinction
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:29 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 32-35 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quellung_reaction | Quellung reaction]] Make distinctions in strains of bacteria visible. Antibodies bind to a bacterial capsule and make it opaque and visible under a microscope.
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quellung_reaction | Quellung reaction]] Make distinctions in strains of bacteria visible. Antibodies bind to a bacterial capsule and make it opaque and visible under a microscope.

Algebra of distinctions
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_stain | Gram stain]] Classify bacteria into two groups as to whether they have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall that retains the primary stain, or whether they have a thinner wall for which the primary stain can be washed out, leaving only the counterstain which stains everything. Thus here we make every cell distinguishable (with the counterstain) and then distinguish certain cells (which retain the primary stain when it is washed out)
.
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:19 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 26-32 eilutės iš
* [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Sven Ove Hansson. Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]
į:
* [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Sven Ove Hansson. Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]

---------------------------------

* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffith%27s_experiment | Griffith's experiment]]

* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quellung_reaction | Quellung reaction]] Make distinctions in strains of bacteria visible. Antibodies bind to a bacterial capsule and make it opaque and visible under a microscope.
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:11 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrintos 8-10 eilutės:
* Prasmingai apibrėžti biologinę gyvybę.
* Brėžiniu išdėstyti biologijos šakas.
* Brėžiniu išdėstyti kūno įvairias apytakas, posistemes.
Ištrinta 9 eilutė:
* Gyvybę susieti su ketverybe išmąsčius ryšius tarp pastovios aplinkos ir besimainančio vidaus ir besimainančios aplinkos ir pastovaus vidaus.
2020 birželio 23 d., 11:10 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 1-2 eilutės iš
[[Mintys/Gyvybė]]
į:
[[Mintys/Gyvybė]], [[Life]]
Ištrintos 17-27 eilutės:
Definition of life
* Life is based on the fixed points in the total environment, the natural places for homeostasis.

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Pakeistos 30-39 eilutės iš
* [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Sven Ove Hansson. Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]

Characteristics of Life
* Homeostasis: regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state; for example, sweating to reduce temperature
* Organization: being structurally composed of one or more cells – the basic units of life
* Metabolism: transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energy into cellular components (anabolism) and decomposing organic matter (catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life.
* Growth: maintenance of a higher rate of anabolism than catabolism. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter.
* Adaptation: the ability to change over time in response to the environment. This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the organism's heredity, diet, and external factors.
* Response to stimuli: a response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism to external chemicals, to complex reactions involving all the senses of multicellular organisms. A response is often expressed by motion; for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun (phototropism), and chemotaxis.
* Reproduction: the ability to produce new individual organisms, either asexually from a single parent organism or sexually from two parent organisms.
į:
* [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Sven Ove Hansson. Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]
2020 gegužės 29 d., 20:43 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 40-41 eilutės iš
** [[https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1573521410000461 | H.Maat. The history and future of agricultural experiments]]
** [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]
į:
* [[https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1573521410000461 | H.Maat. The history and future of agricultural experiments]]
* [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Sven Ove Hansson. Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]
2020 gegužės 29 d., 20:42 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 41 eilutė:
** [[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13194-019-0255-7 | Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology]]
2020 gegužės 29 d., 20:40 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 33 eilutė iš:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Biology_experiments | Biology experiments]]
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Biology_experiments | Wikipedia: Biology experiments]]
Pridėta 40 eilutė:
** [[https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1573521410000461 | H.Maat. The history and future of agricultural experiments]]
2020 gegužės 29 d., 20:12 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Ištrinta 29 eilutė:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_biology | List of unsolved problems in biology]]
Pridėtos 32-39 eilutės:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_biology | List of unsolved problems in biology]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Biology_experiments | Biology experiments]]
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Genetics_experiments | Genetics experiments]] 21
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ecological_experiments | Ecological experiments]] 52
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Controlled_ecological_life_support_systems | Controlled ecological life support systems]]
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Rewilding | Rewilding]]
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Human_subject_research | Human subject research]]
** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Animal_testing | Animal testing]]
2020 gegužės 18 d., 16:42 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 1-2 eilutės:
[[Mintys/Gyvybė]]
2020 gegužės 18 d., 16:41 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 23-24 eilutės:
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2020 gegužės 18 d., 16:39 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 19 eilutė:
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Pakeista 21 eilutė iš:
į:
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Pridėta 23 eilutė:
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2020 gegužės 18 d., 16:38 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 19-21 eilutės iš
Attach:BranchesOfBiology.png

Attach:gyvybes-apibrezimas.png
į:
%center%Attach:BranchesOfBiology.png

%center%Attach:gyvybes-apibrezimas.png
2020 gegužės 18 d., 16:38 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 18-19 eilutės:

Attach:BranchesOfBiology.png
2020 gegužės 18 d., 16:14 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 15-17 eilutės:

Definition of life
* Life is based on the fixed points in the total environment, the natural places for homeostasis.
2020 gegužės 17 d., 21:38 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėta 12 eilutė:
* Kuria prasme biologijoje yra įvairūs lygmenys, pavyzdžiui, organizmas, organai, audiniai, ląstelės. Organizmui augant ląstelės neauga didesnės, o daugėja.
2020 gegužės 17 d., 21:37 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 10-11 eilutės iš
* Sustatyti biologijos žinojimo rūmus.
į:
* Sustatyti biologijos žinojimo rūmus ir jų pagrindu apibrėžti gyvybę.
* Gyvybę susieti su ketverybe išmąsčius ryšius tarp pastovios aplinkos ir besimainančio vidaus ir besimainančios aplinkos ir pastovaus vidaus
.
2020 gegužės 17 d., 21:02 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 9-10 eilutės:
* Brėžiniu išdėstyti kūno įvairias apytakas, posistemes.
* Sustatyti biologijos žinojimo rūmus.
2020 gegužės 17 d., 21:00 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeista 6 eilutė iš:
į:
--------------------
Pridėtos 8-12 eilutės:
* Brėžiniu išdėstyti biologijos šakas.
------------------
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Attach:gyvybes-apibrezimas.png
2020 gegužės 17 d., 20:57 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 5-8 eilutės:
>>bgcolor=#FFFFC0<<

* Prasmingai apibrėžti biologinę gyvybę.
Pakeistos 12-21 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life | 维基百科: 生命 Life]]
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life | 维基百科: 生命 Life]]

Characteristics of Life
* Homeostasis: regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state; for example, sweating to reduce temperature
* Organization: being structurally composed of one or more cells – the basic units of life
* Metabolism: transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energy into cellular components (anabolism) and decomposing organic matter (catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life.
* Growth: maintenance of a higher rate of anabolism than catabolism. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter.
* Adaptation: the ability to change over time in response to the environment. This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the organism's heredity, diet, and external factors.
* Response to stimuli: a response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism to external chemicals, to complex reactions involving all the senses of multicellular organisms. A response is often expressed by motion; for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun (phototropism), and chemotaxis.
* Reproduction: the ability to produce new individual organisms, either asexually from a single parent organism or sexually from two parent organisms.
2020 gegužės 17 d., 19:23 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pakeistos 6-8 eilutės iš
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_biology | List of unsolved problems in biology]]
į:
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_biology | List of unsolved problems in biology]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology | 维基百科: Biology]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life | 维基百科: 生命 Life
]]
2020 gegužės 17 d., 19:17 atliko AndriusKulikauskas -
Pridėtos 1-6 eilutės:
[++++生物学++++]

[+Discovery in Biology+]

Sources
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_biology | List of unsolved problems in biology]]

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Puslapis paskutinį kartą pakeistas 2020 liepos 02 d., 23:34
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